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Saturday, November 8, 2008

GastroIntestinal Nclex Review Materials: Need To Know

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Metronidazole commonly causes a metallic taste. Other adverse reactions include nausea, anorexia, headache, and dry mouth.

The client must refrain from eating or drinking for 6 to 8 hours before an upper GI series.

A high-fiber diet and milk and milk products are contraindicated in clients with Crohn's disease because they may promote diarrhea.

Phenobarbital should be injected into a large muscle mass.

Cirrhosis causes muscle wasting, a decrease in chest and axillary hair, testicular atrophy and an increased bleeding tendency.

The RUQ contains the liver, gallbladder, duodenum, head of the pancreas, hepatic flexure of the colon, portions of the ascending and transverse colon, and a portion of the right kidney. The sigmoud colon is located in the left lower quadrant; the appendix, in the right lower quadrant; and the spleen, in the left upper quadrant.

Elevation of serum lipase is the most reliable indicator of pancreatitis because this enzyme is producted solely by the pancreas.

Aspiration of gastric secretions with a pH less than 6 indicates placement in the stomach.

Diaphoresis, vomiting and diarrhea suggest an intolerance to the prescribed enteral feeding solution.

MAO inhibitors increase the effects of meperidine and can cause rigidity, hypotension and excitation.

A Mallory-Weiss tear is associated with massive bleeding after a tear occurs in the mucous membrane at the junction of the espohagus and stomach. There is a strong relationship between forceful vomiting and a Mallory-Weiss tear.

Duodenal ulcers are more common in people with type O blood, suggesting a genetic basis.

Early manifestation of dumping syndrome occurs 15 to 30 minutes after eating.

The liver is vital int he synthesis of clotting factors, so when it's diseased or dysfunctional, as in hepatitis C, bleeding occurs. Treatment consists of administering blood products that aid clotting. These include fresh frozen plasma containing fibrinogen and cryoprecipitate which have most of the clotting factors.

Mumps, a viral disease usually causes an earache and fever from parotid gland involvement.

Herpangina is an acute viral infection that causes seizures, vomiting and stomach pain, and grayish papuvesicles on the soft palate.

With the sigmoud colostomy, the feces are solid, therefore the client may eventually gain enough control that he would not need to wear a colostomy bag.

When given by rapid IV injection, cimetidine (Tagamet) may cause profound bradycardia and other cardiotoxic effects.

Acute pancreatitis can cause decrease urine output, which results from the renal failure that sometimes accompanies this condition.

Enteric precautions are required until 3 fecal cultures are negative for Shigella.

Black, tarry stools are a sign of bleeding high in the GI tract, as from a gastric ulcer.

Vomitus associated with upper GI tract bleeding commonly is described as coffee-ground-like.

Clay-colored stool are associated with bilary obstruction.

Bright red stools indicate lower GI tract bleeding.

Meperidine's onset of action is 10 to 15 minutes. It peaks between 30 to 60 minutes and has a duration of action of 2 to 4 hours.

A Bernstein test reveals whether a client's chest pain results from acid perfusion of the esophageal mucosa. It's performed by inserting an NG tube and aspirating the gastric contents.

Aphthous stomatitis refers to a canker sore of the oral soft tissues, including the lips, tongue and inside of the cheeks.

Pneumovax 23, a polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine, is administered prophylactically to prevent the pneumococcal sepsis that sometimes occurs after splenectomy.

Recombivax HB is a vaccine for hepatitis B.

Attenuvax is a live, attenuated virus vaccine for immunization against measles (rubeola).

Hallmark signs and symptoms of hepatitis A include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weakness.

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