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Tuesday, October 7, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - D

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Removal of dead or damaged tissue or foreign material from a wound to prevent the growth of microorganisms and further damage and to promote healing.

A drop in baseline fetal heart rate as indicated by the fetal monitor. Early deceleration is a drop in fetal heart rate that coincides with uterine contraction. Variable deceleration is a drop in fetal heart rate that doesn't occur at a consistent point during contractions. Prolonged deceleration is a drop in fetal heart rate that occurs for an extended period of time.

deep vein thrombosis
A condition involving the development of a blood clot in the deep veins of the pelvis, groin, or legs that disrupts venous blood flow and leads to swelling and edema.

The partial or complete separation of a wound's edges.

Having insufficient water in the body or tissues.

False ideas or beliefs accepted as real by the client.

delusions of grandeur
Distorted or false idea or belief that one has exceptional powers, wealth, skill, influence, or destiny.

Denver Developmental Screening Test
An assessment tool used to evaluate the development of a child in four categories: personal social, fine motor-adaptive, language, and gross motor skills.

dependent personality disorder
A disorder that begins in early adulthood and is characterized by an excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fear of separation.

Neutralization of electrical polarity; reversal of the resting potential in excitable cell membranes when stimulated. An example is the reduction of the ion differential of sodium and potassium across the nerve cells at the neuromuscular junction.

diabetes insipidus
A metabolic disorder marked by extreme polyuria and polydipsia and resulting from deficient secretion or production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or inability of the renal tubules to respond to ADH. (Rarely, excessive water intake causes signs and symptoms.) The condition may be acquired (secondary to disease or drug therapy), inherited, idiopathic, or nephrogenic.

diabetes mellitus
A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria resulting from inadequate production or utilization of insulin.

diabetic ketoacidosis
An acute, life-threatening form of metabolic acidosis that may arise as a complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Accumulation of ketone bodies leads to urinary loss of water, potassium, ammonium, and sodium, resulting in hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalances, an extremely high blood glucose level and, commonly, coma. Signs and symptoms include flushed, hot, dry skin; confusion; nausea; diaphoresis; restlessness; and fruity breath odor.

Displacement of any body part, primarily a bone from its normal position in a joint.

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
A life-threatening disorder of excessive clot formation caused by overstimulation of the body's clotting and anticlotting processes in response to disease or injury. Such overstimulation is followed by a deficiency in clotting factors with hypocoagulability and hemorrhaging.

1. Tending to increase the formation and excretion of urine. 2. An agent that promotes the formation and excretion of urine.

Inflammation of one or more diverticula, or saclike herniations, in the muscular layer of the colon.

The presence of saclike herniations through the muscular layer of the colon without accompanying inflammation. Most clients with this condition have few signs or symptoms except for occasional rectal bleeding.

drip factor
An indication of the number of drops needed to obtain one milliliter of solution delivered by a manufacturer's I.V. tubing based on the drop size.

dumping syndrome
A condition of nausea, weakness, profuse sweating, and dizziness occurring in clients who have had a subtotal gastrectomy. Signs and symptoms arise soon after eating when the contents of the stomach empty too rapidly into the duodenum. Also called postgastrectomy syndrome. Eating small, frequent, high-protein, high-calorie meals may help prevent discomfort and ensure adequate nutrition.

Difficulty swallowing, commonly resulting from obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus. Obstructive disorders, such as an esophageal tumor or lower esophageal ring, interfere with the ability to swallow solids; motor disturbances such as achalasia impair swallowing of solids and liquids.

Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, or labored breathing resulting from certain heart conditions, anxiety, or strenuous exercise.

dystonic reaction
Severe tonic contractions of the muscles in the neck, mouth, and tongue; dystonic reaction is a common adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs.

Painful or difficult urination, which is usually caused by a bacterial infection or an obstruction in the urinary tract.

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