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Tuesday, April 8, 2008

Arterial Puncture for Specimen Collection

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Purpose: Obtain arterial blood sample for laboratory analysis.

  1. Perform Allen test to assess collateral circulation before performing arterial puncture on radial artery. Apply pressure over radial and ulnar arteries to obliterate blood flow; hand should blanch. Release pressure over ulnar artery; a flushing color indicates adequate collateral circulation. Failure to flush is a negative result meaning that radial artery not be used, and other arm should be tested. If Allen test is negative in both arms, choose alternative site for arterial puncture.
  2. Clean site with 70% isopropyl alcohol; allow to dry.
  3. Attach 20-gauge needle to a syringe containing .02 ml of heparin insert needle at 45-60 degree angle into skin directly over where artery is palpable.
  4. Draw 3 to 5 ml of blood, remove needle, and apply pressure to puncture site for 3-5 min (15 min if patient is on anticoagulant theraphy).
  5. Expel air bubbles if present, place cap on syringe and gently rotate to mix blood and heparin.
  6. Place arterial blood on ice and immediately take to laboratory for analysis. On laboratory slip, indicate amount of oxygen administration and/or any mechanical ventilation.



Red ------------- None --------Allow blood sample to clot. Permit separtion of serum when the serumneed to be tested.

Light Blue ------- Sodium Citrate --
Prevents blood sample from clottingwhen plasma needs to be tested

--------- Heparin ----- Prevents blood sample from clotting when plasma need to be tested.

Purple --------- EDTA ------ Prevents blood sample from clotting e.g Hematology, CBC, Platelet Count

Red and Black
speckled or gold
---- Inert Silicon gel ---- Separates red cells and serum after centrifuging

Gray ---------- Sodium floride oxalate---- Prevents glycolysis of blood sample e.g. Glucose, lactore tolerance

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