Join our Nursing Review Community! Subscribe below. Its Free!

Join NurseReview.Org Community!

Get Connected With Other Nurses All Over The World! Its Free!! Enter your email to receive the Nursing Board Exam NLE Quick Result!


         Nursing Board Exam Result Subscribers PRC December NLE Quick Results Subscription

NurseReview.Org helps nurses all over the world keep in touch with each other. We provide an interactive environment where nurses can share their experience, ask questions regarding issues, provide assistance, etc.

If you want to be informed through email regarding NLE RESULTS, Nursing News, Retrogression Updates, New Nursing Board Exam Question & Answer, Latest Updates Regarding Nclex, please subscribe to us by filling in your email address above.

NOTE: You email address will be kept private and will not be distributed to spammers.
com/albums/dd234/jben501/philippinenurses/need_help_nursing.jpg" border="0" width="400" height="400" />

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

The respiratory system

If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to our RSS feed. One advantage of subscribing to RSS feeds is that you don't have to constantly re-visit this site to check for updates within specific sections you might be interested in because your browser or Feed reader will do this for you automatically on a regular basis plus you can even get email notification. Thank you so much. Enjoy!

The Respiratory System Slideshow Transcript

Slide 1: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Science Interactive LTD Science base multimedia CD-ROM for PC is a collection of 38 units or tools totalling over 1150 PowerPoint slides. Each unit covers a wide range of different delivery and learning styles, offering an exciting way to involve your pupils during lessons or revision sessions. All styles of teaching and learning are supported through use of high quality images, graphics, challenging exercises and questions. Units can be used in the classroom via an interactive whiteboard, data projector or used during individual study via a PC or school network. Science Interactive LTD. PO BOX 50764 LONDON NW6 9AT email: web: Unit 20: Crude Oil and its Products Unit 1: The Digestive System Unit 21: Rock Cycle Unit 2: The Circulatory System Unit 22: Elements, Molecules and Compounds Unit 3: Healthy Body and Immunity Unit 23: Ionic and Covalent Compounds Unit 4: The Respiratory System Unit 24: The Halogens, their Uses and Compounds Unit 5: Nervous System and the Senses Unit 25: The Noble Gases, their Properties and Uses Unit 6: Human Homeostasis Unit 26: Rates of Reaction Unit 7: Hormones and the Endocrine System Unit 27: Energy Unit 8: Drugs and Bad Body Maintenance Unit 28: Generating Electricity and its Domestic Use Unit 9: Photosynthesis in Green Plants Unit 29: Electricity Unit 10: Water Transport in Plants Unit 30: Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Unit 11: Flow of Energy and Elements through the Environment Unit 31: Radioactivity Unit 12: Mitosis and Meiosis Unit 32: Newton's Forces and the Effects of Forces Unit 13: Inheritance and Selection Unit 33: Earth and Space Unit 14: Evolution and Human Impact Unit 34: The Earth and Plate Tectonics Unit 15: Genetic Engineering Unit 35: The Alkaline Earth Metals Unit 16: The Periodic Table and its Elements Unit 36: Sound and Hearing Unit 17: The Alkali Metals Unit 37: Natural Forces Unit 18: Metals and their Properties Unit 38: Cells, Tissue, Organs and Organs systems Unit 19: The Transitional Metals

Slide 2: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Unit 4 The Respiratory System

Slide 3: Unit 4: The Respiratory System Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Understand: Keywords: Lungs, Diaphragm, Ribs, Alveoli, Intercostal The role of the respiratory system and its key 1. muscles, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Red blood organs. cells, Haemoglobin, Heart, Inhalation, The breathing cycle and the role of the each 2. Exhalation, Respiration, Anaerobic, Aerobic, tissue during breathing and gaseous exchange. Fitness, Bronchitis, Emphysema, Cancer & The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide 3. Exercise. between blood and the alveoli tissue. The similarities and differences between 4. expired and inspired air. How haemoglobin in the red blood cell 5. transports oxygen from the alveoli tissue to respiring cells in the body. How smoking affects lung function, whilst 6. increasing the risk of developing lung cancer or emphysema. How asthma affects normal lung function. 7. The role of oxygen in cellular respiration. 8. The differences between anaerobic and aerobic 9. respiration. How the body recovers from oxygen debt. 10. How to maintain bodily fitness for life and the 11. role of the circulatory, respiratory, nervous and digestive system during exercise. Click mouse to begin Science Interactive LTD PO BOX 50764 LONDON NW6 9AT web: email:

Slide 4: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 The respiratory system one The respiratory system, a collection of cells, t________ and organs works constantly to provide the many billions of cells in the human body with oxygen. The lungs allow gaseous e__________ taking oxygen from the atmosphere into the blood and excreting carbon dioxide from the blood to the atmosphere. A healthy lung consists of many millions of alveoli giving it a huge surface area to help the exchange of these gases. These are highly specialised tissues for exchanging gases. How do villi in the small intestine make use of a large surface area for absorbing nutrients ? The respiratory system: Word bank: tissues exchange Thorax Lung volume Airways Smoking Diagram Your chest is home to Your lungs are The lung tissue is Your lungs are in constant Notes your lungs. They are constantly inhaling and supplied with air by a contact with the outside. both surrounded and exhaling air. Left X ray vast network of tubes They are also very protected by your rib in this picture shows called bronchioles. Your sensitive to pollutants. cage, a collection of the lungs fully windpipe is kept open by Over 100,000 deaths a year bones and muscles. expanded. rings of cartilage. are because of lung cancer.

Slide 5: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 The respiratory system two The lungs are the key organs in the r__________ system. They are located inside your chest or thorax. The lung’s delicate tissues are protected by your ribs. Below your lungs is the diaphragm, which aids breathing and separates your lungs from your a__________. The average lung capacity of an adult male is around 5.5 litres. Lance Armstrong, the cyclist, who recently won seven Tour de Frances has a lung capacity in excess of 7 litres. Females have a smaller lung capacity because of their smaller body mass. The respiratory system: Word bank: respiratory abdomen Tissue Function Windpipe Transports air to alveoli tissue. Capillaries Bronchus Transports air to bronchioles. Bronchioles Bronchiole Transports air to alveoli tissue. Alveoli Alveolus Lungs Allow gas exchange. Ribs Protects and moves the thorax. Intercostal Moves the ribs. muscles Alveoli Diaphragm Changes the volume of the thorax.

Slide 6: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Breathing cycle one Your lungs are constantly working to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide between the alveoli tissue and the pulmonary capillary network. At rest, your lungs e_______ and c_______ about fifteen times every minute. The breathing rate can increase depending on the oxygen demand for your entire body. Your intercostal muscles, ribcage and diaphragm work together to help your lungs inhale and exhale during gaseous exchange. What happens to you breathing rate during periods of exercise and sleep ? Breathing cycle: Word bank: expand contract Breathing out (Exhalation) Breathing in (Inhalation) Diagram Breathing in: Breathing out: Notes 1: Your intercostal muscles contract raising your 1:Your intercostal muscles relax, lowering your ribs upwards and outward. ribs downwards and inwards. 2: Your diaphragm moves downwards. 2: Your diaphragm moves upwards. 3: The volume of the thorax increases and the 3: The volume of the thorax decreases and the pressure decreases. pressure increases. 4: Air rich in oxygen rushes into the lungs. 4:Air rich in carbon dioxide rushes out of the lungs.

Slide 7: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Breathing cycle two As you complete a full breathing cycle (inhalation & exhalation) you are not only taking in oxygen from the atmosphere, you are also getting rid of waste carbon dioxide. Oxygen moves from an area of high concentration (in the atmosphere) to an area of low concentration (in the blood) by diffusion. In your a_______, you exchange what you need for what you don’t need. The air you breathe out is rich in carbon dioxide, moving from an area of high concentration (in the blood) to an area of low concentration (in the atmosphere), also by diffusion. Breathing cycle: Word bank: alveoli Model of the human lung Composition of inhaled and exhaled air Inhaled air Exhaled air Diagram Oxygen 20% 16% Carbon dioxide 0.04% 4% Nitrogen 79% 79% 20oC 37oC Temperature Humidity Low High Notes In this model of a lung, the rubber diaphragm The table above shows the composition of moves downwards increasing the volume of the gases, humidity and temperature of bell jar and decreasing the pressure. Air from inhaled and exhaled air. Look at the outside rushes in. During exhalation, the information and explain the changes in diaphragm moves upwards, reducing the volume composition of gases, humidity and and increasing the pressure. Air rushes out. temperature of inhaled and exhaled air ?

Slide 8: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Lung volume During normal breathing, our l_______ take in about half a litre of air during inhalation and exhalation. During heavy exercise, we can take in about 3 litres of air per cycle. The maximum volume of air that we can take in is about 5 litres. We can measure our total lung volume or vital capacity and peak flow of air whilst breathing out. If you compare your vital capacity and peak flow with professional athletes, how might they differ ? Lung volume: Word bank: lungs Measuring peak volume Lung volumes Diagram Lung volumes: Your peak flow rate can be measured Notes using a device as pictured above. It (a) Tidal volume (breathing at rest) tells us the rate at which air is forced (b) Inspiratory reserve volume out of your lungs through your wind (c) Expiratory reserve volume pipe. Smokers, the elderly and (d) Vital lung capacity (Inhalation + Exhalation) asthmatics can all have a reduced (e) Residual volume (always present in lung) peak flow rate. Why does smoking (f) Total lung capacity affect peak air flow ?

Slide 9: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 The alveoli When inhaled air, rich in o__________ reaches the alveoli tissue, oxygen has to transfer to the blood, so it can be transported through the vascular system to the entire body. Oxygen diffuses across the thin alveoli tissue into the b______ where it binds to the red blood cells. The alveoli tissue is highly specialised to help diffusion. They are extremely thin (one cell thick), are kept moist and have a large surface area. If you were able to spread out the lung it would cover a whole tennis court ! The alveoli tissue: Word bank: oxygen blood Bronchiole Alveoli tissue Single alveoli Diagram O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 The lung tissue is supplied Oxygen in the air dissolves in the fluid The alveolus has a very thin Notes with air by a vast network that coats the alveoli tissue. It then wall and large surface area of tubes called bronchioles. diffuses across to the blood so it can be which is kept moist. These three At the end of each transported to respiring cells in the features help the diffusion of bronchiole are many human body. Carbon dioxide diffuses in oxygen and carbon dioxide thousands of alveoli which the opposite direction and is excreted in across its wall. The alveolus allow gaseous exchange. expired air. also has a rich blood supply.

Slide 10: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Oxygen transport by blood haemoglobin Red blood cells contain the protein haemoglobin, which is responsible for binding oxygen at the l______ tissue (alveoli) and delivering it to every r____________ tissue or cell via a huge capillary network. This network can be up to 50,000 km in the human body. Haemoglobin also contains the mineral i_____, to help oxygen transport. Why is iron important in the diet and why do females require greater quantities of this mineral ? Oxygen transport: Word bank: lung respiring iron At the alveoli Haemoglobin In the tissues Haemoglobin Diagram O2 O2 CO2 CO2 CO2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 Oxyhaemoglobin Air contains 21% oxygen which Haemoglobin is a protein found Oxygen diffuses across the thin Notes is taken to the alveoli tissue by in the red blood cell. It contains capillaries walls to the respiring the bronchioles. Oxygen Iron (Fe2+) and is able to bind cells. It travels from an area of dissolves across the thin alveoli oxygen at several sites. Name high concentration inside the surface and binds to red blood three foods rich in the mineral capillary to an area of low cells. iron ? concentration inside the cells.

Slide 11: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Gaseous exchange in the cells Blood capillaries have a very small diameter allowing only one red blood cell through at a time. Blood flows very slowly through your c__________. The capillaries are extremely thin walled which allows oxygen and plasma containing nutrients to diffuse to the cells. Also waste products like u_____ and carbon dioxide can pass from the cells back to the capillary. Why do red blood cells not pass through the capillary walls ? Understanding your capillaries: Word bank: capillaries urea Capillaries Capillary exchange Diagram Net pressure Carbon Wastes dioxide Urea Glucose Water Oxygen Amino acids Cells An electron micrograph of Notes Oxygen and nutrients including glucose diffuse from blood across a single capillary. Notice the capillary wall to the cells. These are used during cellular the narrow diameter respiration. Waste products including carbon dioxide and urea are allowing only one blood transported back in the plasma to the lungs and the kidneys. cell through.

Slide 12: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Blood circulation The circulation of blood through the heart, lungs and other major organs keeps the human body supplied with the o______ and nutrients that it requires for cellular respiration, growth and repair. This transport system also carries the white blood cells, platelets and antibodies around the body defending us against microbial infection. What lifestyle factors can prematurely age your cardiovascular system ? Circulation in the body: Word bank: oxygen Capillary exchange in detail Red Blood Cell Red Blood Cell CO2 CO2 Tissue O2 O2 O2 O2 Oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide at the tissue surface. Oxygen diffuses across the capillary wall into the cells or tissue. Oxygen is combined with glucose during cellular respiration. Waste products including carbon dioxide and urea are transported in the plasma to the lungs and the kidneys.

Slide 13: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Gas exchange using gills Fish do not have lungs. They are equipped with gills to obtain oxygen for cellular respiration from water. Like lungs, fish gills are highly specialised to allow the d_________ of oxygen from water into the blood. They have a large s________ area, are very thin and have numerous capillaries to transport oxygen away from the gill to the rest of the body. Describe how the shape of gills and alveoli in lungs have common features to help gaseous exchange ? Gas exchange in fish: Word bank: diffusion surface Gas exchange in fish Gas exchange in fish gills Diagram Gills Oxygen rich water Notes Fish have evolved gills to exchange Water rich in oxygen flows over the delicate oxygen and carbon dioxide between water membranes. The oxygen diffuses into the blood and the blood supply. The gills have a rich supply and travels around the body. Carbon blood supply and have a very large surface dioxide, the waste product of respiration diffuses area. from the body, into the water.

Slide 14: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Protecting the lungs The lungs are vulnerable to cold air or infection, caused by bacteria or viruses. Cold, dry air is warmed and moistened by the lining found in your n______ and trachea. Bacteria and viruses are trapped by ciliated epithelial cells that line the trachea. Furthermore, these cells also produce m_______ which trap any airborne microbes, which are then moved by the cilia (hairs) to the back of your throat. Here they are swallowed and destroyed by stomach acid. How does smoking damage these cilia hairs ? Protecting the lungs: Word bank: nose mucus Warm and moist air Ciliated epithelia cells Trapping dirt and microbes in the trachea Hair Diagram cells Bacteria Hair cells and mucus Inhaled air is warmed and The ciliated hair cells Thousands of hair like protrusions trap dust and Notes made moist by the nasal trap dust, dirt and bacteria. This is then covered in a sticky mucus cavity which is richly bacteria preventing them which is secreted by the goblet cells. The hairs supplied by warm blood entering the delicate lung beat the mucus and bacteria to the back of the through thousands of tissue. Smoking damages throat where it is swallowed. Bacteria are then capillaries. these specialised cells. destroyed by the acid in the stomach.

Slide 15: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Damaging your lungs In addition to smoking, your lungs can be damaged by your life style, your place of work or even a traffic jam. Our lungs take in over fifty litres of air every minute of the day. The quality of the a____ we breathe at work, where we live and play affects how our lungs perform over our lives. Remember, our lungs are the most sensitive organs we have and can be quickly damaged by our lifestyles and our own e____________. How might the pollutants from cars and lorries affect our lungs ? Damaging your lungs: Word bank: air environment Risk Smoking Lifestyle Work Air pollution Diagram Smoking in the U.K Our lifestyles can also Many work places can Traffic pollution can Notes kills over 100,000 damage our lungs. expose our lungs to dust affect the quality of the adults per year. Despite Smoking and living near and other airborne air we breathe. In our these figures, the busy car jammed roads pollutants. We can cities, traffic pollution government has yet to can damage our delicate protect ourselves by can increase the number ban smoking from lungs for the rest of our wearing a face mask, of deaths from public places. lives. which filters out dust. respiratory failure.

Slide 16: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Smoking and its effects on the human body Nicotine, the active c__________ in cigarette smoke is highly a__________. Nicotine itself, has an effect on the heart and blood pressure like other stimulants but, it is the t____ and carcinogenic chemicals in cigarette smoke that leads to an increased risk of developing lung, throat and mouth cancer. Smoking over two decades can also lead to the development of emphysema. This disease causes the breakdown of the alveoli tissue. Make a list of the reasons why people start to smoke when they are young ? Smoking and its effects: Word bank: chemical addictive tar Effect on major organs Other effects Cigarettes (smoke & tar) Diagram Notes The average UK smoker Lung cancer kills about 100,000 Increased heart rate and consumes 20 cigarettes per people in the UK every year with the blood pressure may lead to day until death from heart majority of incidents caused by heart disease. This is a major failure or lung cancer. What smoking or passive smoking at work cause of death in smokers. is the addictive agent in and home. The number of deaths in Pictured is a heart valve cigarette smoke ? females is rising...why ? replacement in a smoker.

Slide 17: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Smoking as a cause of lung cancer Smoking was first linked as a direct cause of lung cancer by the scientist John Doull. He . studied the main causes of death in many thousands of smokers and non smokers. His research linked s_________ with an increased risk of dying from lung cancer. Smoke irritates the lung causing new cells to grow. Dividing lung cells expose their genes or DNA to the cancer-causing chemicals in cigarette smoke and t_____. A change in the lung cell DNA results in lung c________ in the future. Lung cancer and smoking: Word bank: smoking tar cancer Cancer x-ray Lung cancer Cancer Deaths in America Giving up Diagram An X-ray of a cancerous lung tissue (right) Drugs, chewing gum Notes Key (Death rates in the US) Six tumours are growing and increasing in and inhalers all supply 70/100,000 size in both the right and left lung. Untreated the addictive drug 50/100,000 this patient will die form the presence of all nicotine to help 35/100,000 these tumours. The right picture shows the smokers give up their 20/100,000 lung of a dead 56 year old male smoker. habit. Why is will From the graph more people smoke in Notice how the tissue has changed because of power also important coastal areas or in large cities. the build up of tar deposits. when quitting ? Smoking is still seen as a social habit.

Slide 18: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Other effects of smoking on the human body In addition to lung cancer, smoking over a long period can increase the risk of developing emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Again, many of the 300 chemicals that cigarette tar contains causes these respiratory diseases, particularly in the heavy smoker. Emphysema is a fatal lung condition involving the breakdown of the a________ tissue, causing many years of suffering. Coal miners and others whose occupations have exposed them to dust and pollutants can also suffer from these diseases. Emphysema and bronchitis: Word bank: alveoli Normal bronchioles Bronchitis Normal alveoli Emphysema Diagram Notes Normal bronchioles Bronchitis can be fatal The alveolus has a very See how the lung alveoli have a large diameter in the very old and in thin wall, a large surface have been destroyed by which transports smokers. Excessive area which is kept moist the inner walls breaking inhaled and exhaled air mucus can damage the and a good blood supply. down. Less oxygen is to and from the alveoli delicate lung tissue These four features help able to diffuse across the tissue out through the causing scaring and lead the diffusion of O2 and lung into the blood windpipe. to infection. CO2 across its wall. stream.

Slide 19: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Aerobic cellular respiration Aerobic cellular respiration is the release of energy from the breakdown of glucose to water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen from the atmosphere is required to b___________ glucose forming carbon dioxide, water and energy. Respiration occurs in every cell, inside the mitochondria. In animals, 90% of the energy available from ingested food is used for every day activities like muscle contraction, transporting chemicals, absorbing food, building new cells and maintaining a constant body temperature. Why do vegetarians have less impact on the environment ? Energy use of ingested food: Word bank: breakdown Energy use in animals Process Faeces: Energy contained in Diagram 25,000 kJ 1 the faeces and undigested food of the animal. Nutrients Fa e ces Respiration: Energy used in 1 50,000kJ Re 20,000 kJ 2 cellular respiration and for s pi rat body heat. i on 2 Gr Growth: Energy contained ow th 5,000 kJ 3 in the tissues of the animal 3 (available for the next level.) Notes The daily nutrient requirement for a horse is around 50,000 Half the energy (25,00 kJ) in kJ with only 5,000 kJ of nutrients ending up as part of the ingested food passes horse’s body. 20,000 kJ is used for muscle activity, transport, undigested through the absorbing and digesting food and maintaining a constant horse's body as waste or body temperature. faeces.

Slide 20: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Aerobic respiration in the cells If you view animals cells under a microscope, you can see tiny dots in the cytoplasm. These are mitochondria. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria releasing energy from the breakdown of g________ using oxygen. All living things give out carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration. Muscle cells contain many mitochondria because they require lots of energy. Even plants and simple bacteria contain mitochondria for respiration. Respiration and mitochondria: Word bank: glucose Mitochondria Notes Diagram To respire glucose with oxygen providing cell C6H12O6 6H2O energy. All living cells have these mitochondria. Cellular respiration equation: Mitochondria Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 6O2 6CO2 Glucose Oxygen Water Carbon dioxide Cells Nerve messages Body temp (oC) Building cells Muscles Use Transport Digestion Diagram

Slide 21: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Respiration and combustion Respiration inside human cells using glucose and oxygen is like the combustion of fossil fuels like p______, which is rich in alkanes like octane. When we combust these fuels with oxygen, energy in the form of h____ and motion is released. New substances are also produced including carbon dioxide and water. Equation: 2C8H18 + 25O2 CO2 + 18H2O Octane Oxygen Carbon dioxide Water Combustion: Word bank: petrol heat Car engine Octane & Oxygen Engine Products Diagram In a modern car, In the engine, huge The engine is designed to The waste products are Notes combustion of fuels amounts of oxygen are convert the chemical carbon dioxide and water. like petrol provides the combined with octane. engine contained in However, carbon and energy to move This releases lots of octane to kinetic energy. carbon monoxide are also forward. Like cellular useful forms of energy It is highly inefficient released. Compare respiration waste gases contained in carbon releasing only 13% of cellular respiration to are produced. rich petrol. octane’s energy. combustion in an engine ?

Slide 22: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Anaerobic respiration During exercise your muscles use oxygen and glucose during cellular respiration. This provides the energy all m_______ cells need to be able to contract and move your body. During vigorous exercise your cardiovascular system cannot supply enough o________ to your muscles. When the demand for oxygen outstrips the supply, your muscle respire glucose without oxygen, producing lactic acid. This is known as anaerobic respiration. When lactic acid builds up in the muscles what does it cause ? Anaerobic respiration: Word bank: muscle oxygen Anaerobic respiration in muscle cells Lactic acid and exhaustion Diagram C6H12O6 Lactic acid Sugar 6O2 Carbon dioxide The skeletal muscles in your legs and arms are able to respire The build up of lactic acid can cause Notes glucose without oxygen forming lactic acid. Although less exhaustion in trained athletes. When energy is produced during anaerobic respiration, your muscle you sprint over 100 metres the burning can continue to respire without oxygen for several minutes. sensation you can feel in the legs is Athletes train so they can endure the pain associated with lactic because of lactic acid build up in your acid build up. muscles.

Slide 23: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Oxygen debt during anaerobic respiration When muscles are working hard, they begin to respire glucose without oxygen. This is called anaerobic respiration. Lactic acid produced during anaerobic respiration builds up and slowly poisons your muscles. Your body can’t supply sufficient oxygen to your muscles. This is called oxygen debt. When you stop vigorous exercise, your heart and lungs continue to supply extra oxygen to allow the muscle to breakdown l____ acid. This repays the oxygen debt. Oxygen debt: Word bank: lactic Oxygen debt in muscles Lactic acid production in muscle Diagram Oxygen supply 2.5 2.5 Oxygen supply (litres) Oxygen demand (litres) Lactic Oxygen demand C6H12O6 2.25 2.25 acid Sugar 2.0 Oxygen debt 2.0 b 1.75 1.75 1.5 1.5 1.25 1.25 a B C 1.0 1.0 c A 0.75 0.75 0.5 0.5 6O2 Carbon 0.25 0.25 dioxide 0 0 01 2 3 45 6 78 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time (Minutes) Notes During rest (a) the supply of oxygen to the muscles meets demand. During anaerobic respiration, less During hard vigorous exercise (b), demand increases above supply energy is produced respiring glucose and the muscle have to continue respiring glucose without oxygen. without oxygen. Lactic acid builds up Anaerobic respiration leads to the oxygen debt and formation of and begins to damage your muscles, lactic acid. This oxygen debt is repaid when exercise stops (c) by giving you the sensation of the the lungs continuing to oversupply the muscles with the lungs. ‘burn.’

Slide 24: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Complete fitness Athletes require their key organ systems to work together so that they can exercise and play their sport. Fitness is a measure of how well you body w_____ and exercises. Athletes require ‘total fitness’ so that they can win and excel at their s______. The cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal-muscle system all work together to supply the oxygen and nutrients to your muscles. How would you devise a training programme to increase your overall fitness ? Essential organ systems: Word bank: works sport Athlete Cardiovascular Respiratory Muscle Diagram Professional athletes The cardiovascular system Your respiratory system The skeletal-muscle Notes like runners and is the human body’s is constantly working to system works to move footballers work hard transport system. It moves exchange oxygen for the body during sport. to be fit for their sport, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide between A sprinter requires the but ideas of fitness nutrients, hormones, and the alveoli and the fastest contracting vary according to their immune cells around a pulmonary capillaries in muscles during a 100 m sport. network of tubes. the lung. race.

Slide 25: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Maintaining fitness Athletes work hard to achieve total fitness, but what does being fit mean ? If you are fit, you will have a low resting heart rate which recovers quickly after e_________. Your lungs efficiently exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide at the alveoli tissue and your skeletal m________ system moves you quickly, without tiring during a race or a game. Exercising (running, weights & gym work) helps us to achieve fitness and improve our ability to compete and win. Fitness and the five ‘S’ Word bank: exercise muscle Strength Stamina Skill Suppleness Speed Diagram Notes The five ‘s’ strength, stamina, skill, suppleness and speed are all improved by repetitive training and exercise. Regular exercise also helps prevent people becoming overweight and developing heart disease and diabetes. Nearly 25% of all adults are now considered obese with almost 50% of all pupils of secondary school age not taking enough exercise.

Slide 26: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Fermenting grape and grain Many microbes including yeast can respire successfully without oxygen. Yeast can respire glucose successfully with or without oxygen. When yeast respires glucose without oxygen, it is called fermentation. Fermentation of s_______ from grape or other crops produces alcohol. Wine has been made from grapes using yeast for many centuries. The Romans developed vineyards to supply Rome with w______ from about 400 B.C. onwards. Using the Internet, research into how they make beer from barley, yeast and hops ? Anaerobic respiration producing alcohol: Word bank: sugar wine Sugar in grapes Yeast microbes Fermentation Final product Diagram The sugar in grapes, Yeast is a naturally Alcohol is produced in The finished product is Notes rice, potato, oats and occurring bacteria that huge quantities to supply taxed by the government barley are used to during fermentation all drinkers. Weekly, raising huge tax manufacture many produces alcohol and females are allowed 14 revenues. Duty on different types of carbon dioxide as waste units, compared with 21 alcohol raises more than alcohol including wine. products. units for males. 8 billion per year.

Slide 27: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Industrial fermentation using yeast Yeast is a very important microbe that supports alcohol manufacture, a multibillion pound industry. Sugar from wheat or grapes is converted to alcohol (beer or wine) in the absence of oxygen by yeast microbes. During f___________, alcohol is produced as a waste product by yeast. Brewing wine or beer are good examples of using biotechnology. Many other useful chemicals can now be made using all types of m________ using fermentation technology. Research into how synthetic insulin for diabetics is manufactured using biotechnology ? Alcohol fermentation: Word bank: fermentation microbes Fermentation using yeast Final products Diagram Alcohol C6H12O6 Sugar Carbon 6O2 dioxide Yeast Notes Yeast is used in the manufacture of wine, beer and After fermentation, the alcohol is spirits. Sugar contained in grapes or grain is fermented separated from the dead yeast by yeast producing alcohol. The yeast cells multiply cells and allowed to mature over rapidly in the sugar until they run out of the food source time. Distilling alcohol increases or high concentrations of alcohol kill them. its content in spirits like vodka.

Slide 28: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Extension questions and homework 1: Define the following terms: Inhalation, Exhalation, Respiration, Anaerobic, Aerobic, Gas exchange & Fitness. 2: Look at the diagram of the three types of surfaces which exchange substances like oxygen or nutrients by diffusion. Complete the table. Fatty acids glycerol Gills O2 rich water O2 O2 Glucose O2 Amino acids O2 O2 O2 Tissue Rich blood supply (Y/N) Large surface area (Y/N) Moist (Y/N) Alveoli Yes Small intestine (villi) Yes Gills Yes 3: Answer the following questions: a) How does oxygen in the atmosphere move into your bloodstream. b) How is carbon dioxide removed from your respiring cells as a waste product by the lungs. c) The common features of surfaces that allow gas exchange. Name three of them. d) The key elements of the breathing cycle (inhalation and exhalation) e) How are gills in fish similar to lungs found in all mammals. f) Describe the journey of an oxygen molecule from the air sac to muscle tissue in your lower leg.

Slide 29: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 4: Look at the information in the table below. It shows the results of an investigation designed to investigate how breathing changes during exercise: Activity Volume of each inhalation (cm3) Number of inhalations per minute taken Resting 600 19 Press ups (25 min-1) 800 26 Press ups (40 min-1) 1250 35 a) How many breaths did the volunteer take during (i) Rest (ii) When doing 25 press ups per minute. b) Calculate the amount of oxygen (cm3) breathed in at (i) Rest (ii) When doing 50 press ups per minute. c) What would the person’s breathing be like shortly after exercise was finished. 5: Answer the following questions: a) Describe the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. b) Describe the role of the mitochondria in cells. Which types of tissue contain the most mitochondria and why c) Explain why the build up of lactic acid in your leg muscle begins to slow your speed during a sprint race. d) Explain why the heart can never respire anaerobically. e) Explain how red blood cells are adapted to carry oxygen. How does haemoglobin transport oxygen. 6: Complete the following: During a 200 metre race, the lungs supply ___________ to the respiring muscles. Waste carbon dioxide is taken via the blood stream and excreted by the ________. All athletes begin to become tired, because of the build up of _______________ in the muscles. This is called _______________ respiration. Internet: Go to and find about how athletes use the illegal drug EPO which stimulates the production of red blood cells. How might this give them an advantage over other athletes. Whys is this dangerous for the athlete.

Article copyright - #1 source of information to update nurses all over the world. All rights reserved. No part of an article may be reproduced without the prior permission.


Philippine Nurses in Action

Search for Nursing Jobs Abroad!

Quick Nursing Facts:

NLE Results December 2011 Results

December 2011 Nursing Board Exam Successful Examinees for the December NLE 2011

Nursing Board Exam July 2010 NLE PRC

July 2011 Nursing Board Exam Successful Examinee PRC

List of Successful Examinees for Nursing Licensure Examination July 2011 Conducted by the PRC

We are one of the few websites to post results right after the Philippine Regulatory Board have release the list of successful examinees

Results for July 2011 NLE Board Exam

July 2011 NLE Nursing Licensure Examination Results List Of Passers

Recommended Books

Filipino Nurse Tag Rolls

NursingReview.Org Disclaimer

© 2008-2009 NurseReview.Org This site contains links to other Web sites. The owner of this blog has no control over the content or privacy practices of those sites. The information provided here is for general information purpose only. Comments are moderated. If in any case the owner approves a comment, it should not be taken as an endorsement of that comment. The owner doesn't claim full ownership of all photos or articles posted on this site. If the respective copyright owners wish for their photos or articles to be taken down, feel free to e-mail me and it will be taken down immediately.