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Friday, October 24, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - T

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A condition characterized by a regular but accelerated action of the heart, usually l00 to 150 beats per minute.

tactile fremitus
Vibration in the chest wall that can be felt when a hand is applied to the thorax while the patient is speaking. It's most commonly due to consolidation of a lung or a part of a lung but may also be caused by congestion, inflammation, or infection.

tardive dyskinesia
A neurological syndrome marked by slow, rhythmical, automatic movements that occur as an adverse effect of extended phenothiazine use.

tension pneumothorax
A condition in which air enters the pleural space through a tear in lung tissue but can't exit through the same vent, thereby trapping air in the pleural space with each inspiration and producing positive pleural pressure. This in turn causes the ipsilateral lung to collapse.

An indication of decreased skin turgor, as exhibited by a fold of skin remaining or holding in the pinched position after being released.

Causing harm to the developing fetus.

Hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles as a result of a lessened concentration of extracellular ionized calcium; symptoms include convulsions, muscle twitching and cramps, and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints.

tetralogy of Fallot
A combination of congenital cardiac defects consisting of pulmonic stenosis, interventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta so that it overrides the interventricular septum and receives venous as well as arterial blood, and right ventricular hypertrophy.

A reduction in the number of blood platelets; usually caused by destruction of erythroid tissue in bone marrow. The condition may be a result of neoplastic disease or an immune response to a drug.

Inflammation of a vein, often involving clot formation. Common causes include chemical irritation, blood hypercoagulability, immobilization, infection, postoperative venous stasis, prolonged sitting or standing, trauma to the vessel wall, or a long period of I.V. catheterization.

tonic-clonic seizure
Paroxysmal, uncontrolled discharge of central nervous system neurons extending to the entire brain and characterized by stiffening (tonic phase) and then rapid synchronous muscle jerking and hyperventilation (clonic phase). Also called a major or grand mal seizure.

The surgical removal of the palatine tonsils.

total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
The administration of total caloric needs in a nutritionally adequate solution of glucose, protein hydrolysates, minerals, and vitamins through a catheter inserted into the superior vena cava.

tracheoesophageal fistula
Abnormal opening between the esophagus and trachea that may lead to aspiration.

The surgical creation of an opening through the neck into the trachea; used to relieve upper airway obstruction and aid breathing.

1. The action of pulling a part of the body along the long axis. 2. In orthopedics: the act of exerting force through a system of weights and pulleys to align, immobilize, or relieve pressure in a limb, bone, or group of muscles.

Method or route of topical drug administration; provides continuous drug delivery through the skin to achieve a constant, steady blood concentration level.

transsphenoidal adenohypophysectomy
Surgery involving the pituitary gland, most commonly performed to remove a pituitary tumor. The physician enters from the inner aspect of the upper lip through the sphenoid sinus.

transsphenoidal hypophysectomy
Microsurgery in which an incision is made at the junction of the gums and upper lip. A surgical microscope is advanced and a special surgical instrument is used to excise all or part of the pituitary gland.

Trendelenburg's position
Position in which the client's head is lower than the trunk; typically, the body and legs are elevated on an incline.

Trousseau's sign
An assessment technique for evaluating neuromuscular irritability (tetany) associated with hypocalcemia. When Trousseau's sign is positive, the client develops a carpopedal spasm (adducted thumb, flexed wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints, and extended interphalangeal joints) after a blood pressure cuff is applied to the client's upper arm and inflated to a pressure above systolic pressure for approximately 1 to 4 minutes.

An acute or chronic infection from exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or another strain of mycobacteria characterized by pulmonary infiltrates and formation of granulomas with caseation, fibrosis, and cavitation.

type 1 diabetes
An endocrine disorder involving disturbances in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, usually occurring before age 30 and requiring the use of exogenous insulin and dietary management. Also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

type 2 diabetes
An endocrine disorder involving disturbances in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism; characterized by insulin resistance with varying degrees of insulin secretory defects. May be treated with diet, exercise, and oral antidiabetic agents. Exogenous insulin is sometimes necessary.

type 2 herpes simplex
A type of herpes simplex virus transmitted primarily through contact with genital secretions and affecting the genital structures.

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