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Thursday, October 23, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - S

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A contagious skin disease caused by the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei.

schizotypal personality disorder
A disorder characterized by acute discomfort with and reduced capacity for close relationships and by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning in early adulthood.

An appreciable lateral curvature of the spine resulting from numerous causes, including congenital malformations of the spine, muscle paralysis, poliomyelitis, sciatica, and unequal leg length.

sensorineural hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by a defect or lesion of the inner ear or the acoustic nerve resulting in a distortion of sound that makes discrimination difficult.

sensory perceptions
Awareness of one's surroundings through the use of vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell.

Of a discharge containing both serum and blood.

An abnormal physiologic state characterized by reduced cardiac output, circulatory insufficiency, tachycardia, hypotension, restlessness, pallor, and diminished urinary output. Shock may be caused by a variety of conditions, including trauma, infection, hemorrhage, poisoning, myocardial infarction, and dehydration.

sickle cell anemia
A chronic and incurable hereditary disorder occurring in people homozygous for hemoglobin S (Hb S). The presence of Hb S results in distortion and fragility of erythrocytes.

sickle cell crisis
Episode of widespread cellular sickling in which the client's red blood cells containing hemoglobin S are exposed to conditions in which oxygen supply to the cells is decreased. This leads to cellular contraction and piling within the cell, altering the shape of the red blood cells (sickling). These sickled cells become rigid and clump together to form clusters, ultimately obstructing capillary blood flow and causing tissue ischemia.

simple fracture
An uncomplicated, closed bone fracture in which the skin isn't broken.

skin turgor
Skin characteristic determined by pinching a small area of skin on the medial arm or anterior chest and noting how quickly it returns to its position when released.

somatoform pain
Development of the symptom of pain as a result of psychological stress.

spinal shock
Loss of autonomic reflex, motor, and sensory activity below the level of a lesion. Signs of spinal shock include flaccid paralysis, loss of deep tendon and perianal reflexes, and loss of motor and sensory function.

standard precautions
Infection control guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requiring all health care personnel to use gloves, gowns, and goggles to prevent contact with a client's blood or body fluids and to adhere to strict safety measures when handling needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments.

status asthmaticus
A severe and prolonged asthma attack in which bronchospasm fails to respond to oral medication, sometimes resulting in hypoxia, cyanosis, and unconsciousness.

Stokes-Adams attack
Episode of confusion and light-headedness accompanying syncope with or without seizures due to inadequate cerebral perfusion secondary to heart block.

1. A minute pore, orifice, or surface opening. 2. An artificial, surgically created opening of an internal organ on the body surface, such as for a colostomy or tracheostomy. 3. A new opening surgically created between two structures, such as for a gastroenterostomy or pancreaticogastrostomy.

An inflammation of the mouth that may result from bacterial, viral, or fungal infection; exposure to chemicals or drugs; vitamin deficiency; or a systemic inflammatory disease.

A high-pitched respiratory sound, usually heard during inspiration, caused by an obstruction of the trachea or larynx.

A condition of sudden onset in which a cerebral blood vessel is occluded by an embolus or cerebrovascular hemorrhage. The resulting ischemia of brain tissue that is normally perfused by the affected vessel may lead to permanent neurologic damage.

subdural hematoma
A condition involving the collection of blood between the dura mater and the brain.

Under the tongue.

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
The sudden, unexpected, and inexplicable death of an infant who appears to be healthy. It occurs during sleep, typically in infants between the ages of 3 weeks and 5 months. Also called crib death.

Located above the tentorium of the brain.

A liquid that contains solid particles that aren't dissolved; stirring or shaking the liquid maintains the dispersal.

Group of drugs that mimic the effects of impulses conveyed by adrenergic postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.

synchronized cardioversion
Delivery of an electrical shock to the client in conjunction with the R wave on his ECG, just as the heart muscle contracts. Delivery is timed to avoid the T wave because an electrical discharge at this time may cause ventricular fibrillation.

synergistic effect
Administration of two drugs producing the same qualitative effect together to produce a greater response than either drug alone.

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
A chronic inflammatory multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes.

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