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Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - R

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radical mastectomy
Surgical removal of an entire breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and all fat, fascia, and adjacent tissues; usually used in the treatment of breast cancer.

reaction formation
Substitution of behavior, thoughts, or feelings that are completely opposed to one's own unacceptable behavior, thoughts, or feelings.

rectal route
Use of the rectum to administer medication

reflection
A technique in which the listener interprets the feelings of the client and repeats them back to the client; encourages the client to clarify his feelings.

repolarization
Part of the cardiac conduction cycle in which the cell returns to its resting state, a more negatively charged state. Calcium ions move into the cell and potassium ions move out, followed by the extrusion of sodium and calcium ions from the cell and the restoration of potassium ions into the cell by the sodium potassium pump.

respiratory acidosis
Caused by reduced alveolar ventilation; is marked by increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, excess carbonic acid, and increased plasma hydrogen-ion concentration. Hypoventilation inhibits the excretion of carbon dioxide, which consequently produces excessive carbonic acid and thus lowers blood pH.

respiratory alkalosis
Caused by both respiratory and nonrespiratory factors, this condition is marked by decreased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, decreased hydrogen-ion concentration, and increased blood pH. Extreme anxiety can precipitate hyperventilation associated with respiratory alkalosis.

resuscitation
A method used to support a client's breathing and circulation until the body can do so on its own or the client is mechanically supported. It involves maintaining an open airway, providing artificial ventilation through rescue breathing, and promoting artificial circulation through external cardiac compression.

Reye's syndrome
Acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the internal organs following acute viral infections, such as influenza B, chickenpox (varicella), the enteroviruses, and the Epstein-Barr virus; has also been associated in children with administration of aspirin and other salicylates.

Rh incompatibility
In hematology: two blood groups that are antigenically different and, therefore, aren't compatible because one group lacks the Rh factor.

rheumatic fever
An inflammatory disease sometimes occurring if group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection is inadequately treated.

rheumatoid arthritis
A chronic, systemic collagen disease marked by inflammation, stiffness, and pain in the joints and related structures that result in crippling deformities.

ritodrine therapy
A prescribed treatment that uses the beta-receptor agonist ritodrine to halt preterm labor.

Romberg’s sign
A swaying (or falling) when a person stands with feet together and eyes closed. It’s an indication that the person has lost a sense of position. Also called rombergism.

rooting reflex
A response in neonates to the cheek being touched or stroked. The infant turns the head toward the stimulated side and begins to suck. The reflex usually disappears by 3 to 4 months of age.

Russell traction
An orthopedic device that combines suspension and traction to align and immobilize the legs; used to treat diseases of the hip and knee and fractured femurs as well as hip and knee contractures.



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