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Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - P

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Paget's disease
A common bone disease that usually affects middle-aged and elderly people. It’s marked by inflammation of the bones, softening and thickening of the bones, excessive bone destruction, and unorganized bone repair; the result is bowing of the long bones. The cause is unknown.

Repetition of words or phrases with increasing rapidity.

Acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas.

An abnormal condition characterized by the loss or impairment of motor function or the impairment of sensory function.

paralytic ileus
A decrease in or absence of bowel motility that may occur following abdominal surgery or may be caused by numerous other conditions, most commonly by peritonitis.

paranoid schizophrenia
Disorder involving disordered thinking with delusional thought content characterized by preoccupation with delusions or auditory hallucinations, lack of organized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or flat or inappropriate affect.

An abnormal condition characterized by the loss of sensation and motor function in the lower limbs, which may result in either complete or incomplete paralysis.

Not in or through the digestive system, but rather by injection through some other route, such as subcutaneously, I.V., I.M., or intradermally.

Abnormal or heightened touch sensations, such as burning, numbness, prickling, and tingling, that commonly occur without external stimulus.

Awareness of objects and the ability to differentiate between them.

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
A technique to open stenosed atherosclerotic arteries. A balloon catheter is inserted through the skin and into the vessel to the site of narrowing; the balloon is inflated, thus flattening the plaque against the arterial walls.

Inflammation of the pericardium; may be caused by trauma, neoplasm, infection, uremia, myocardial infarction, or collagen disease.

1. The pelvic floor and its associated structures; located between the symphysis pubis and the coccyx and on the sides by the ischial tuberosities. 2. The body area between the thighs; bounded by the anus and scrotum in males and by the anus and vulva in females.

peristaltic waves
Alternating involuntary contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle fibers of a structure in a wavelike fashion to propel the contents forward; commonly associated with the GI tract.

peritoneal dialysis
A procedure performed to remove toxins, drugs, or other wastes normally excreted by the kidney; transfers these substances across the peritoneum by intermittently introducing and removing a dialysate from the peritoneal cavity.

An inflammation of the peritoneum; can be produced by bacteria or irritating substances introduced into the abdominal cavity by a penetrating wound or perforation of an organ.

pernicious anemia
A megaloblastic anemia characterized by decreased gastric production of hydrochloric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach essential for vitamin B12 absorption; results in vitamin B12 deficiency.

The process by which cells engulf and digest solid substances, such as microorganisms and cell debris.

phenylketonuria (PKU)
An inborn metabolic disorder caused by absence or deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine; results in accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites, causing mental retardation and other neurologic problems, light pigmentation, eczema, and a distinctive mousy odor.

A chromaffin-cell tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes an excessive amount of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, which results in severe hypertension, increased metabolism, and hyperglycemia.

The treatment of disease by the use of light, especially ultraviolet light or other concentrated rays; used to treat acne, psoriasis, and hyperbilirubinemia.

pituitary dwarfism
A condition characterized by a deficiency in secretion of the growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.

placenta accreta
Abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall.

placenta previa
Implantation of the placenta so that it adjoins or covers the internal os of the uterine cervix. The most common symptom is painless hemorrhage in the last trimester.

An acute infection of the lung parenchyma that commonly impairs gas exchange.

A collection of air in the pleural space; may result from an open chest wound that permits the entrance of air or from the rupture of a vesicle on the surface of the lung. Common types of pneumothorax are open, closed, and tension.

Chronic, excessive thirst.

The simultaneous inflammation of a number of voluntary muscles.

Degeneration of peripheral nerves primarily supplying the distal muscles of the extremities. It results in muscle weakness, with sensory loss and atrophy, and decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes.

Voracious or excessive eating before becoming satiated.

The excessive excretion of urine from the kidneys.

postterm neonate
A neonate born after the onset of the 43rd week of pregnancy.

An abnormal condition characterized by the development of hypertension during pregnancy, accompanied by edema or proteinuria, usually after the 20th week of gestation.

pressure ulcer
Localized area of skin breakdown occurring secondary to prolonged pressure. Necrotic tissue develops because the vascular supply to the area is diminished.

preterm neonate
A neonate born before the beginning of the 38th week of pregnancy.

A woman who is pregnant for the first time.

Prinzmetal's angina
A variant of angina pectoris, a form of unstable angina, in which the attacks occur during rest. Attacks are indicated by an ST-segment elevation on an electrocardiogram.

productive cough
A mechanism by which the body clears the airway passages of secretions that normal mucociliary action doesn't remove; usually sudden, forceful, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs that contains sputum or blood (or both).

False attribution of one's unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts onto another.

Itching; an unpleasant sensation that leads to rubbing or scratching the skin in an effort to obtain relief. Scratching the skin may lead to secondary infection.

The development of a Parkinson-like disorder (neuromuscular disorder involving progressive muscle rigidity, akinesia, and involuntary tremors) due to psychotropic drug therapy.

1. Of or pertaining to the period from the end of childbirth until involution of the uterus is complete (usually 3 to 6 weeks). 2. Of or pertaining to a woman (puerpera) who has just given birth to an infant.

pulmonary edema
An abnormal condition in which extravascular fluid is accumulated in lung tissues and alveoli.

pulse pressure
The numeric difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures, usually 30 to 40 mm Hg.

Containing or forming pus.

Inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis.

The presence of pus in the urine, commonly a sign of urinary tract infection.

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