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Saturday, October 18, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - M

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A radiograph of the breast; used for diagnostic purposes.

Radiography of the mammary gland to identify benign and malignant neoplastic processes.

The surgical resection of a breast; usually performed to remove a malignant tumor.

Inflammation of the mammary gland; usually caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal infection and infrequent breast-feeding.

A dark, greenish black material that occurs in the intestines of a fetus that forms the first stools of a neonate. The fluid is thick and sticky and is composed of intestinal gland secretions, some amniotic fluid, and intrauterine debris.

megaloblastic anemia
A hematologic disorder that is characterized by the production and peripheral proliferation of megaloblasts.

Ménière's disease
A labyrinthine dysfunction that produces severe vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus.

metabolic acidosis
A condition resulting from excessive accumulation of acid or depletion of bicarbonate.

metabolic alkalosis
A clinical state marked by decreased amounts of acid or increased amounts of base bicarbonate.

A therapeutic environment, typically used as part of inpatient psychiatric therapy.

mitral stenosis
Obstruction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle due to thickening and contracting of the mitral valve leaflets; consequently, left atrial volume and pressure rise and the chamber dilates. Greater resistance to blood flow causes pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right-sided heart failure.

muscular dystrophy
A group of degenerative genetic diseases characterized by weakness and the progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles with no evidence of nervous system involvement.

Diffuse muscle pain or tenderness associated with many infectious diseases.

myasthenia gravis
An abnormal muscle weakness and fatigability, especially in the muscles of the face and throat, resulting from a defect in the conduction of nerve impulses at the myoneural junction.

mycoplasmal pneumonia
A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, characterized by a sore throat, dry cough, fever, malaise, and myalgia.

Osteolytic neoplasm consisting of a protrusion of cells typical of the bone marrow.

The protrusion of a hernial sac containing a portion of the spinal cord, its meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid through a congenital defect in the vertebral column.

A disorder that results from hypofunction of the thyroid. Signs and symptoms include enlarged tongue, slowed speech, moon face, drowsiness, cold intolerance, hair loss, and anemia.

myxedema coma
A rare, serious form of hypothyroidism that usually results from lack of treatment or mistreatment, severe stress (from infection, exposure to cold, or trauma), or the use of sedatives or anesthetics in a client being treated for hypothyroidism.

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