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Monday, October 13, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - H

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Sensory perceptions that don't result from external stimuli and that occur during wakefulness.

health care power of attorney
A legal document in which an individual designates another person, called an "attorney-in-fact," to act on the individual's behalf if the principal person becomes disabled or incapacitated. The document becomes void when the principal person dies or recovers.

heart failure
Inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the tissues.

Bleeding into a joint cavity.

The presence of blood in the urine.

Surgical removal of one-half of the colon.

Paralysis on one side of the body or a part of it that indicates an injury to the motor area of the brain.

Paralysis of one side of the body.

Written recording of the blood count differential.

hemolytic reaction
Type of blood transfusion reaction occurring when the donor's blood is incompatible with the recipient's blood; the most serious type of transfusion reaction.

A bleeding disorder characterized by a failure of the blood clotting mechanism. It’s an inherited condition occurring almost exclusively in males.

The coughing or spitting up of blood caused by hemorrhage in the lungs or bronchi. Minor amounts of blood may appear in the sputum of individuals with bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections.

hepatic encephalopathy
A serious complication of liver failure affecting a client's neurologic status; believed to result from the accumulation of toxins, such as ammonia, in the blood.

hepatojugular reflux
Distention of the neck veins when manual pressure is applied over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen; it suggests heart failure.

Enlargement of the liver.

Having two different genes at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes.

hiatal hernia
Protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.

homonymous hemianopia
Blindness or visual deficit in one-half of the field of vision of both eyes. Either the right halves or the left halves of each eye are affected.

State of severe despair associated with feelings of inadequacy and isolation, an inability to act on one's behalf, and a belief that the situation is highly unlikely to improve.

A system of family-centered care using a multidisciplinary approach designed to assist the chronically ill person to maintain a satisfactory lifestyle through the terminal phases of dying.

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A retrovirus identified as the primary cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

hydatidiform mole
A usually benign neoplasm that occurs at the end of a degenerating pregnancy and arises from enlarged chorionic villi and the proliferation of trophoblastic tissue.

Presence of an excess volume of amniotic fluid during pregnancy.

Treatment involving the use of water, such as tub or shower baths and whirlpools.

hyperemesis gravidarum
Severe and prolonged vomiting during pregnancy to such a degree that weight loss and an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes occur.

Elevated serum level of phosphorus above 2.6 mEq/L or 4.5 mg/dl.

Excessive sleepiness.

A severe elevation in body temperature.

Disorder involving overproduction of thyroid hormone, leading to a metabolic imbalance.

1. A solution that has greater osmotic pressure compared to another solution; a fluid in which cells shrink. 2. In reference to muscles or arteries, having a greater than normal degree of tension.

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Primary disease of the cardiac muscle characterized by disproportionate, asymmetrical thickening of the interventricular septum, particularly in the anterior-superior region. Also called idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.

To increase the rate or depth of one's inspirations or expirations, or both; may occur with anxiety.

Preoccupation with the fear that one has a serious illness despite medical reassurance to the contrary; fear interferes with psychosocial functioning.

Low serum glucose levels.

A congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the underside, rather than at the tip, of the penis; in females, the defect is manifested by a urethral opening into the vagina.

1. A solution that has a decreased osmotic pressure compared to another solution; a fluid in which cells swell. 2. In reference to muscles or arteries, having a less than normal degree of tension.

A decreased level of oxygen in inspired air.

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