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Thursday, October 9, 2008

Nursing Review Glossary - E

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echolalia
Parrotlike and inappropriate repetition of another's words.

ectopic pregnancy
Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity. Types of ectopic pregnancy are abdominal pregnancy, interstitial pregnancy, and tubal pregnancy.

effacement
Shortening of the vaginal portion of the cervix and thinning of its walls during labor due to stretching and dilation caused by the fetus. Full effacement obliterates the constrictive neck of the uterus. The extent of effacement is expressed as a percentage of full effacement.

elbow restraints
Type of restrictive device attached to the client's body at the elbow to restrict movement or access to another body part; may be applied after cleft palate repair to reduce the risk of injury to the suture line.

electrocardiogram interpretation
Analysis of the waveforms seen on an electrocardiogram

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
The induction of a brief seizure and loss of consciousness by applying a low-voltage alternating current to the brain through scalp electrodes. ECT is used in the treatment of affective disorders (primarily acute depression), especially in clients resistant to psychoactive drugs. On awakening, the client has no memory of the shock.

electromyogram (EMG)
A record of the electrical activity of skeletal muscles, obtained by surface electrodes or needle electrodes and devices that amplify, transmit, and record the signals. The technique is helpful in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders, pinpointing motor nerve lesions, and measuring electrical potentials induced by voluntary muscle contraction.

electromyography
Diagnostic test that records the electrical activity of selected skeletal muscle groups at rest and during voluntary contraction. It involves percutaneous insertion of a needle electrode into a muscle with measurement of the muscle's electrical discharge through an oscilloscope.

endocarditis
An abnormal condition of the endocardium and heart valves marked by vegetations on the valves and endocardium. It may occur as a primary disorder or arise in association with another disease.

endotracheal intubation
Passage of a wide-bore tube through the mouth or nose into the trachea. It may be used to maintain a patent airway, administer anesthesia, aspirate secretions, prevent aspiration of foreign material into the tracheobronchial tree of an unconscious or paralyzed person, or administer positive pressure ventilation that can’t be given effectively by a mask.

enteral
Referring to administration by mouth, rectum, or directly into the intestinal system.

enteral feedings
Delivery of nutrients directly into the GI tract through a feeding tube.

enteric precautions
A category-specific type of infection precautions established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention involving infections transmitted by intestinal secretions. These have since been replaced with standard precautions and transmission-based precautions.

enuresis
Involuntary passage or release of urine after the age when bladder control would have been normally achieved.

epiglottis
The lidlike, cartilaginous structure that overhangs the larynx and prevents food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing.

epiglottitis
Inflammation of the epiglottis. Acute epiglottitis, a severe form of the condition that primarily affects children, causes stridor, fever, sore throat, croupy cough, and a reddened, swollen epiglottis.

epilepsy
A group of neurologic disorders marked by uncontrolled electrical discharge from the cerebral cortex and typically manifested by seizures with clouding of consciousness. Epilepsy is most commonly of unknown cause (idiopathic) but is sometimes associated with head trauma, intracranial infection, brain tumor, vascular disturbances, intoxication, or chemical imbalance.

episiotomy
Surgical incision into the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery. It’s performed to prevent traumatic tearing of the perineum, to hasten or promote delivery, or to prevent stretching of perineal muscles and connective tissue.

Erikson
Psychosocial development theorist who described eight developmental stages across the life span, each of which is characterized by a conflict between two opposing forces.

erythroblastosis fetalis
Hemolytic anemia of the neonate caused by placental transmission of maternally formed antibodies against the incompatible antigens of fetal blood. It results from maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility, specifically involving the rhesus (Rh) factor and the ABO blood groups, and is characterized by accelerated destruction of red blood cells and resulting jaundice. In Rh factor incompatibility, the hemolytic reaction appears only when the mother is Rh-negative and the infant is Rh-positive. Isoimmunization rarely occurs with the first pregnancy, but the risk increases with each succeeding pregnancy.

eschar
A thick scab or dry crust that appears after a thermal or chemical burn.

esophageal atresia
A congenital anomaly involving closure of the esophagus at some point, often ending in a blind pouch.

evaporation
The change of a liquid to a vapor at a temperature below the boiling point of the liquid. Evaporation occurs at the surface of the liquid, hastened by an increase in temperature and a decrease in atmospheric pressure.

evisceration
1. Pushing out or removal of the viscera, especially through a surgical incision. 2. In ophthalmology: excision of the contents of the eyeball (except the sclera).

exacerbation
An increase in the seriousness of a disease or disorder or in its signs and symptoms.

extrapyramidal
1. Describing the tissues and structures of the brain located outside the pyramidal tract and not running through the medullary pyramid -- excluding the motor neurons, motor cortex, and corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts. 2. Of or relating to the function of these tissues and structures.

extravasation
Escape, usually of blood, lymph, or I.V. solution, from a vessel into surrounding tissues.



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