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Sunday, September 21, 2008

Diuretics Updates (nclex pharmacology worksheets)

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Diuretics Updates (pharmacology worksheets) Slideshow Transcript
Slide 1: Diuretic Agents Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 2: Diuretic Agents • Drugs that accelerate the rate of urine formation. • Result: removal of sodium and water Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 3: Sodium • Where sodium goes, water follows. • 20 to 25% of all sodium is reabsorbed into the bloodstream in the loop of Henle, 5 to 10% in the distal tubules, and 3% in collecting ducts. • If it is not absorbed, it is excreted with the urine. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 4: Diuretic Agents • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors • Loop diuretics • Osmotic diuretics • Potassium-sparing diuretics • Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 5: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs) • acetazolamide (Diamox) • methazolamide • dichlorphenamide Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 6: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action • The enzyme carbonic anhydrase helps to make H+ ions available for exchange with sodium and water in the proximal tubules. • CAIs block the action of carbonic anhydrase, thus preventing the exchange of H+ ions with sodium and water. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 7: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action • Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase reduces H+ ion concentration in renal tubules. • As a result, there is increased excretion of bicarbonate, sodium, water, and potassium. • Resorption of water is decreased and urine volume is increased. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 8: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Therapeutic Uses • Adjunct agents in the long-term management of open-angle glaucoma • Used with miotics to lower intraocular pressure before ocular surgery in certain cases • Also useful in the treatment of: – Glaucoma – Edema – Epilepsy – High-altitude sickness Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 9: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Therapeutic Uses • Acetazolamide is used in the management of edema secondary to CHF when other diuretics are not effective. • CAIs are less potent diuretics than loop diuretics or thiazides—the metabolic acidosis they induce reduces their diuretic effect in 2 to 4 days. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 10: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Side Effects Metabolic acidosis Drowsiness Anorexia Paresthesias Hematuria Urticaria Photosensitivity Melena Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 11: Loop Diuretics • bumetanide (Bumex) • ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) • furosemide (Lasix) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 12: Loop Diuretics: Mechanism of Action • Act directly on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride resorption. • Increase renal prostaglandins, resulting in the dilation of blood vessels and reduced peripheral vascular resistance. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 13: Loop Diuretics: Drug Effects • Potent diuresis and subsequent loss of fluid • Decreased fluid volume causes: – Reduced BP – Reduced pulmonary vascular resistance – Reduced systemic vascular resistance – Reduced central venous pressure – Reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure • Potassium depletion Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 14: Loop Diuretics: Therapeutic Uses • Edema associated with CHF or hepatic or renal disease • Control of hypertension Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 15: Loop Diuretics: Side Effects Body System Effect CNS Dizziness, headache, tinnitus, blurred vision GI Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 16: Loop Diuretics: Side Effects Body System Effect Hematologic Agranulocytosis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia Metabolic Hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 17: Osmotic Diuretics • mannitol (Resectisol, Osmitrol) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 18: Osmotic Diuretics: Mechanism of Action • Work in the proximal tubule • Nonabsorbable, producing an osmotic effect • Pull water into the blood vessels and nephrons from the surrounding tissues Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 19: Osmotic Diuretics: Drug Effects • Reduced cellular edema • Increased urine production, causing diuresis • Rapid excretion of water, sodium, and other electrolytes, as well as excretion of toxic substances from the kidney • Reduces excessive intraocular pressure Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 20: Osmotic Diuretics: Therapeutic Uses • Used in the treatment of patients in the early, oliguric phase of ARF • To promote the excretion of toxic substances • Reduction of intracranial pressure • Treatment of cerebral edema Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 21: Osmotic Diuretics: Side Effects • Convulsions • Thrombophlebitis • Pulmonary congestion Also headaches, chest pains, tachycardia, blurred vision, chills, and fever Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 22: Potassium-Sparing Diuretics • amiloride (Midamor) • spironolactone (Aldactone) • triamterene (Dyrenium) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 23: Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Mechanism of Action • Work in collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules • Interfere with sodium-potassium exchange • Competitively bind to aldosterone receptors • Block the resorption of sodium and water usually induced by aldosterone Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 24: Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Drug Effects • Prevent potassium from being pumped into the tubule, thus preventing its secretion • Competitively block the aldosterone receptors and inhibit its action • The excretion of sodium and water is promoted Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 25: Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Therapeutic Uses spironolactone and triamterene • Hyperaldosteronism • Hypertension • Reversing the potassium loss caused by • potassium-losing drugs amiloride • Treatment of CHF Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 26: Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Side Effects Body System Effect CNS Dizziness, headache GI Cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Other Urinary frequency, weakness **hyperkalemia Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 27: Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Side Effects spironolactone • gynecomastia, amenorrhea, irregular menses Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 28: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics • hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix, HydroDIURIL) • chlorothiazide (Diuril) • trichlormethiazide (Metahydrin) • Thiazide-like • chlorthalidone (Hygroton) • metolazone (Mykrox, Zaroxolyn) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 29: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Mechanism of Action • Inhibit tubular resorption of sodium and chloride ions • Action primarily in the ascending loop of Henle and early distal tubule • Result: water, sodium, and chloride are excreted • Potassium is also excreted to a lesser extent • Dilate the arterioles by direct relaxation Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 30: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Drug Effects • Lowered peripheral vascular resistance • Depletion of sodium and water Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 31: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Therapeutic Uses • Hypertension (one of the most prescribed group of agents for this) • Edematous states • Idiopathic hypercalciuria • Diabetes insipidus • Adjunct agents in treatment of CHF, hepatic cirrhosis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 32: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Side Effects Body System Effect CNS Dizziness, headache, blurred vision, paresthesias, decreased libido GI Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 33: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Side Effects Body System Effect GU Impotence Integumentary Urticaria, photosensitivity Metabolic Hypokalemia, glycosuria, hyperglycemia Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 34: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Perform a thorough patient history and physical examination. • Assess baseline fluid volume status, intake and output, serum electrolyte values, weight, and vital signs. • Assess for disorders that may contraindicate the use of, or necessitate cautious use of, these agents. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 35: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Instruct patients to take in the morning as much as possible to avoid interference with sleep patterns. • Monitor serum potassium levels during therapy. • Potassium supplements are usually not recommended when potassium levels exceed 3.0 mEq/L. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 36: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Teach patients to maintain proper nutritional and fluid volume status. • Teach patients to eat more potassium-rich foods when taking any but the potassium-sparing agents. • Foods high in potassium include bananas, oranges, dates, raisins, plums, fresh vegetables, potatoes, meat, and fish. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 37: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Patients taking diuretics along with a digitalis preparation should be taught to monitor for digitalis toxicity. • Diabetic patients who are taking thiazide and/or loop diuretics should be told to monitor blood glucose and watch for elevated levels. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 38: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Teach patients to change positions slowly, and to rise slowly after sitting or lying to prevent dizziness and possible fainting related to orthostatic hypotension. • Encourage patients to keep a log of their daily weight. • Encourage patients to return for follow-up visits and lab work. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 39: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Patients who have been ill with nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea should notify their physician as fluid loss may be dangerous. • Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia include muscle weakness, constipation, irregular pulse rate, and overall feeling of lethargy. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 40: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Instruct patients to notify the physician immediately if they experience rapid heart rates or syncope (reflects hypotension or fluid loss). • A weight gain of 2 or more pounds a day or 5 or more pounds a week should be reported immediately. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 41: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications Monitor for adverse effects: • metabolic alkalosis, drowsiness, lethargy, hypokalemia, tachycardia, hypotension, leg cramps, restlessness, decreased mental alertness Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 42: Diuretic Agents: Nursing Implications • Monitor for therapeutic effects: – Reduction in edema, fluid volume overload, CHF – Reduction of hypertension – Return to normal intraocular pressures Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.





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