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Saturday, September 27, 2008

Bronchodilators Updates (ati nclex pharmacology topic descriptors)

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Bronchodilators Updates (ati pharmacology topic descriptors) Slideshow transcript
Slide 1: Bronchodilators and Other Respiratory Agents Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 2: Drugs Affecting the Respiratory System • Bronchodilators – Xanthine derivatives – Beta-agonists • Anticholinergics • Antileukotriene agents • Corticosteroids • Mast cell stabilizers Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 3: Instructors may want to use EIC Image #94: Airway Restrictive Factors Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 4: Bronchodilators: Xanthine Derivatives • Plant alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline • Only theophylline is used as a bronchodilator Examples: aminophylline dyphilline oxtriphylline theophylline (Bronkodyl, Slo-bid, Theo-Dur,Uniphyl) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 5: Bronchodilators: Xanthine Derivatives Mechanism of Action • Increase levels of energy-producing cAMP* • This is done competitively inhibiting phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme that breaks down cAMP • Result: decreased cAMP levels, smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, and increased airflow *cAMP = cyclic adenosine monophosphate Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 6: Bronchodilators: Xanthine Derivatives Drug Effects • Cause bronchodilation by relaxing smooth muscles of the airways. • Result: relief of bronchospasm and greater airflow into and out of the lungs. • Also causes CNS stimulation. • Also causes cardiovascular stimulation: increased force of contraction and increased HR, resulting in increased cardiac output and increased blood flow to the kidneys (diuretic effect). Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 7: Bronchodilators: Xanthine Derivatives Therapeutic Uses • Dilation of airways in asthmas, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema • Mild to moderate cases of asthma • Adjunct agent in the management of COPD • Adjunct therapy for the relief of pulmonary edema and paroxysmal nocturnal edema in left-sided heart failure Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 8: Bronchodilators: Xanthine Derivatives Side Effects • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia • Gastroesophageal reflux during sleep • Sinus tachycardia, extrasystole, palpitations, ventricular dysrhythmias • Transient increased urination Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 9: Bronchodilators: Beta-Agonists • Large group, sympathomimetics • Used during acute phase of asthmatic attacks • Quickly reduce airway constriction and restore normal airflow • Stimulate beta2 adrenergic receptors throughout the lungs Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 10: Bronchodilators: Beta-Agonists Three types • Nonselective adrenergics – Stimulate alpha1, beta1 (cardiac), and beta2 (respiratory) receptors. Example: epinephrine • Nonselective beta-adrenergics – Stimulate both beta1 and beta2 receptors. Example: isoproterenol (Isuprel) • Selective beta2 drugs – Stimulate only beta2 receptors. Example: albuterol Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 11: Bronchodilators: Beta-Agonists Mechanism of Action • Begins at the specific receptor stimulated • Ends with the dilation of the airways Activation of beta2 receptors activate cAMP, which relaxes smooth muscles of the airway and results in bronchial dilation and increased airflow. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 12: Bronchodilators: Beta-Agonists Therapeutic Uses • Relief of bronchospasm, bronchial asthma, bronchitis, and other pulmonary disease. • Useful in treatment of acute attacks as well as prevention. • Used in hypotension and shock. • Used to produce uterine relaxation to prevent premature labor. • Hyperkalemia—stimulates potassium to shift into the cell. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 13: Bronchodilators: Beta-Agonists Side Effects Alpha-Beta Beta1 and Beta2 Beta2 (epinephrine) (isoproterenol) (albuterol) insomnia cardiac stimulation hypotension restlessness tremor vascular headache anorexia anginal pain tremor cardiac stimulation vascular headache tremor vascular headache Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 14: Respiratory Agents: General Nursing Implications • Encourage patients to take measures that promote a generally good state of health in order to prevent, relieve, or decrease symptoms of COPD. – Avoid exposure to conditions that precipitate bronchospasms (allergens, smoking, stress, air pollutants) – Adequate fluid intake – Compliance with medical treatment – Avoid excessive fatigue, heat, extremes in temperature, caffeine Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 15: Respiratory Agents: General Nursing Implications • Encourage patients to get prompt treatment for flu or other illnesses, and to get vaccinated against pneumonia or flu. • Encourage patients to always check with their physician before taking any other medication, including OTC. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 16: Respiratory Agents: General Nursing Implications • Perform a thorough assessment before beginning therapy, including: – Skin color – Baseline vital signs – Respirations (should be <12>24 breaths/min) – Respiratory assessment, including PO2 – Sputum production – Allergies – History of respiratory problems – Other medications Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 17: Respiratory Agents: General Nursing Implications • Teach patients to take bronchodilators exactly as prescribed. • Ensure that patients know how to use inhalers, MDIs, and have the patients demonstrate use of devices. • Monitor for side effects. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 18: Respiratory Agents: Nursing Implications • Monitor for therapeutic effects – Decreased dyspnea – Decreased wheezing, restlessness, and anxiety – Improved respiratory patterns with return to normal rate and quality – Improved activity tolerance • Decreased symptoms and increased ease of breathing Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 19: Bronchodilators: Nursing Implications Xanthine Derivatives • Contraindications: history of PUD or GI disorders • Cautious use: cardiac disease • Timed-release preparations should not be crushed or chewed (causes gastric irritation) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 20: Bronchodilators: Nursing Implications Xanthine Derivatives • Report to physician: Palpitations Nausea Vomiting Weakness Dizziness Chest pain Convulsions Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 21: Bronchodilators: Nursing Implications Xanthine Derivatives • Be aware of drug interactions with: cimetidine, oral contraceptives, allopurinol • Large amounts of caffeine can have deleterious effects. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 22: Bronchodilators: Nursing Implications Beta-Agonist Derivatives • Albuterol, if used too frequently, loses its beta2-specific actions at larger doses. • As a result, beta1 receptors are stimulated, causing nausea, increased anxiety, palpitations, tremors, and increased heart rate. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 23: Bronchodilators: Nursing Implications Beta-Agonist Derivatives • Patients should take medications exactly as prescribed, with no omissions or double doses. • Patients should report insomnia, jitteriness, restlessness, palpitations, chest pain, or any change in symptoms. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 24: Anticholinergics: Mechanism of Action • Acetylcholine (ACh) causes bronchial constriction and narrowing of the airways. • Anticholinergics bind to the ACh receptors, preventing ACh from binding. • Result: bronchoconstriction is prevented, airways dilate. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 25: Anticholinergics • Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) is the only anticholinergic used for respiratory disease. • Slow and prolonged action • Used to prevent bronchoconstriction • NOT used for acute asthma exacerbations! Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 26: Anticholinergics: Side Effects Dry mouth or throat Gastrointestinal distress Headache Coughing Anxiety No known drug interactions Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 27: Antileukotrienes • Also called leukotriene receptor antagonists (LRTAs) • New class of asthma medications • Three subcategories of agents Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 28: Antileukotrienes Currently available agents: • montelukast (Singulair) • zafirlukast (Accolate) • zileuton (Zyflo) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 29: Antileukotrienes: Mechanism of Action • Leukotrienes are substances released when a trigger, such as cat hair or dust, starts a series of chemical reactions in the body. • Leukotrienes cause inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and mucus production. • Result: coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 30: Antileukotrienes: Mechanism of Action • Antileukotriene agents prevent leukotrienes from attaching to receptors on cells in the lungs and in circulation. • Inflammation in the lungs is blocked, and asthma symptoms are relieved. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 31: Antileukotrienes: Drug Effects By blocking leukotrienes: • Prevent smooth muscle contraction of the bronchial airways • Decrease mucus secretion • Prevent vascular permeability • Decrease neutrophil and leukocyte infiltration to the lungs, preventing inflammation Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 32: Antileukotrienes: Therapeutic Uses • Prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma in adults and children over age 12 • NOT meant for management of acute asthmatic attacks • Montelukast is approved for use in children age 2 and older Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 33: Antileukotrienes: Side Effects zileuton zafirlukast Headache Headache Dyspepsia Nausea Nausea Diarrhea Dizziness Liver dysfunction Insomnia Liver dysfunction montelukast has fewer side effects Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 34: Antileukotrienes: Nursing Implications • Ensure that the drug is being used for chronic management of asthma, not acute asthma. • Teach the patient the purpose of the therapy. • Improvement should be seen in about 1 week. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 35: Antileukotrienes: Nursing Implications • Check with physician before taking any OTC or prescribed medications—many drug interactions. • Assess liver function before beginning therapy. • Medications should be taken every night on a continuous schedule, even if symptoms improve. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 36: Corticosteroids • Anti-inflammatory • Used for CHRONIC asthma • Do not relieve symptoms of acute asthmatic attacks • Oral or inhaled forms • Inhaled forms reduce systemic effects • May take several weeks before full effects are seen Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 37: Corticosteroids: Mechanism of Action • Stabilize membranes of cells that release harmful bronchoconstricting substances. • These cells are leukocytes, or white blood cells. • Also increase responsiveness of bronchial smooth muscle to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 38: Inhaled Corticosteroids • beclomethasone dipropionate (Beclovent, Vanceril) • triamcinolone acetonide (Azmacort) • dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Decadron Phosphate Respihaler) • flunisolide (AeroBid) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 39: Inhaled Corticosteroids: Therapeutic Uses • Treatment of bronchospastic disorders that are not controlled by conventional bronchodilators. • NOT considered first-line agents for management of acute asthmatic attacks or status asthmaticus. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 40: Inhaled Corticosteroids: Side Effects • Pharyngeal irritation • Coughing • Dry mouth • Oral fungal infections Systemic effects are rare because of the low doses used for inhalation therapy. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 41: Inhaled Corticosteroids: Nursing Implications • Contraindicated in patients with psychosis, fungal infections, AIDS, TB. • Cautious use in patients with diabetes, glaucoma, osteoporosis, PUD, renal disease, CHF, edema. • Teach patients to gargle and rinse the mouth with water afterward to prevent the development of oral fungal infections. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 42: Inhaled Corticosteroids: Nursing Implications • Abruptly discontinuing these medications can lead to serious problems. • If discontinuing, should be weaned for a period of 1 to 2 weeks, and only if recommended by physician. • REPORT any weight gain of more than 5 pounds a week or the occurrence of chest pain. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 43: Mast Cell Stabilizers • cromolyn (Nasalcrom, Intal) • nedocromil (Tilade) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 44: Mast Cell Stabilizers • Indirect-acting agents that prevent the release of the various substances that cause bronchospasm • Stabilize the cell membranes of inflammatory cells (mast cells, monocytes, macrophages), thus preventing release of harmful cellular contents • No direct bronchodilator activity • Used prophylactically Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 45: Mast Cell Stabilizers: Therapeutic Uses • Adjuncts to the overall management of COPD • Used solely for prophylaxis, NOT for acute asthma attacks • Used to prevent exercise-induced bronchospasm • Used to prevent bronchospasm associated with exposure to known precipitating factors, such as cold, dry air or allergens Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 46: Mast Cell Stabilizers: Side Effects Coughing Taste changes Sore throat Dizziness Rhinitis Headache Bronchospasm Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 47: Mast Cell Stabilizers: Nursing Implications • For prophylactic use only • Contraindicated for acute exacerbations • Not recommended for children under age 5 • Therapeutic effects may not be seen for up to 4 weeks • Teach patients to gargle and rinse the mouth with water afterward to minimize irritation to the throat and oral mucosa Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.




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