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Tuesday, September 30, 2008

Antimalarials Updates (nclex pharmacology tutorial)

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Antimalarials Updates (pharmacology tutorial) Slideshow Transcript
Slide 1: Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, and Antihelmintic Agents Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 2: Protozoal Infections Parasitic protozoa: live in or on humans • malaria • leishmaniasis • amebiasis • giardiasis • trichomoniasis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 3: Malaria • Caused by the plasmodium protozoa. • Four different plasmodium species. • Cause: the bite of an infected adult mosquito. • Can also be transmitted by infected individuals via blood transfusion, congenitally, or via infected needles by drug abusers. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 4: Malarial Parasite (plasmodium) Two Interdependent Life Cycles • Sexual cycle: in the mosquito • Asexual cycle: in the human – Knowledge of the life cycles is essential in understanding antimalarial drug treatment. – Drugs are only effective during the asexual cycle. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 5: Plasmodium Life Cycle Asexual cycle: two phases • Exoerythrocytic phase: occurs “outside” the erythrocyte • Erythrocytic phase: occurs “inside” the erythrocyte Erythrocytes = RBCs Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 6: Antimalarial Agents Attack the parasite during the asexual phase, when it is vulnerable • Erythrocytic phase drugs: chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinine, mefloquine • Exoerythrocytic phase drug: primaquine May be used together for synergistic or additive killing power. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 7: Antimalarials: Mechanism of Action 4-aminoquinoline derivatives chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine • Bind to parasite nucleoproteins and interfere with protein synthesis. • Prevent vital parasite-sustaining substances from being formed. • Alter pH within the parasite. • Interfere with parasite’s ability to metabolize and use erythrocyte hemoglobin. • Effective only during the erythrocytic phase Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 8: Antimalarials: Mechanism of Action 4-aminoquinoline derivatives quinine and mefloquine • Alter pH within the parasite. • Interfere with parasite’s ability to metabolize and use erythrocyte hemoglobin. • Effective only during the erythrocytic phase. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 9: Antimalarials: Mechanism of Action diaminophyrimidines pyrimethamine and trimethoprim • Inhibit dihydrofolate reductase in the parasite. • This enzyme is needed by the parasite to make essential substances. • Also blocks the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate. These agents may be used with sulfadoxine or dapsone for synergistic effects. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 10: Antimalarials: Mechanism of Action primaquine • Only exoerythrocytic drug. • Binds and alters DNA. sulfonamides, tetracyclines, clindamycin • Used in combination with antimalarials to increase protozoacidal effects Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 11: Antimalarials: Drug Effects • Kill parasitic organisms. • Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine also have antiinflammatory effects. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 12: Antimalarials: Therapeutic Uses • Used to kill plasmodium organisms, the parasites that cause malaria. • The drugs have varying effectiveness on the different malaria organisms. • Some agents are used for prophylaxis against malaria. • Chloroquine is also used for rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 13: Antimalarials: Side Effects • Many side effects for the various agents • Primarily gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and abdominal pain Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 14: Antiprotozoals • atovaquone (Mepron) • metronidazole (Flagyl) • pentamidine (Pentam) • iodoquinol (Yodoxin, Di-Quinol) • paromomycin (Humatin) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 15: Protozoal Infections • amebiasis • giardiasis • pneumocystosis • toxoplasmosis • trichomoniasis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 16: Protozoal Infections Transmission • Person-to-person • Ingestion of contaminated water or food • Direct contact with the parasite • Insect bite (mosquito or tick) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 17: Antiprotozoals: Mechanism of Action and Uses atovaquone (Mepron) • Protozoal energy comes from the mitochondria • Atovaquone: selective inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport • Result: no energy, leading to cellular death Used to treat mild to moderate P. carinii Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 18: Antiprotozoals: Mechanism of Action and Uses metronidazole • Disruption of DNA synthesis as well as nucleic acid synthesis • Bactericidal, amebicidal, trichomonacidal Used for treatment of trichomoniasis, amebiasis, giardiasis, anaerobic infections, and antibiotic- associated pseudomembranous colitis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 19: Antiprotozoals: Mechanism of Action and Uses pentamidine • Inhibits DNA and RNA • Binds to and aggregates ribosomes • Directly lethal to Pneumocystis carinii • Inhibits glucose metabolism, protein and RNA synthesis, and intracellular amino acid transport Mainly used to treat P. carinii pneumonia and other protozoal infections Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 20: Antiprotozoals: Mechanism of Action and Uses iodoquinol (Yodoxin, Di-Quinol) • “Luminal” or “contact” amebicide • Acts primarily in the intestinal lumen of the infected host • Directly kills the protozoa Used to treat intestinal amebiasis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 21: Antiprotozoals: Mechanism of Action and Uses paromomycin • “Luminal” or “contact” amebicide • Kills by inhibiting protein synthesis Used to treat amebiasis and intestinal protozoal infections, and also adjunct therapy in management of hepatic coma Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 22: Antiprotozoals: Side Effects atovaquone • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia metronidazole • metallic taste, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps iodoquinol • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, agranulocytosis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 23: Antiprotozoals: Side Effects pentamidine • bronchospasms, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, acute pancreatitis, acute renal failure, increased liver function studies paromomycin • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 24: Antihelmintics • diethylcarbamazine (Hetrazan) • mebendazole (Vermox) • niclosamide (Niclocide) • oxamniquine (Vansil) • piperazine (Vermizine) • praziquantel (Biltricide) • pyrantel (Antiminth) • thiabendazole (Mintezol) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 25: Antihelmintics • Drugs used to treat parasitic worm infections: helmintic infections • Unlike protozoa, helminths are large and have complex cellular structures • Drug treatment is very specific Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 26: Antihelmintics • It is VERY IMPORTANT to identify the causative worm • Done by finding the parasite ova or larvae in feces, urine, blood, sputum, or tissue – cestodes (tapeworms) – nematodes (roundworms) – trematodes (flukes) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 27: Antihelmintics: Mechanism of Action and Uses diethylcarbamazine (Hetrazan) • Inhibits rate of embryogenesis thiabendazole (Mintezol) • Inhibits the helminth-specific enzyme, fumarate reductase Both used for nematodes (tissue and some roundworms) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 28: Antihelmintics: Mechanism of Action piperazine (Vermizine) and pyrantel (Antiminth) • Blocks acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in paralysis of the worms, which are then expelled through the GI tract Used to treat nematodes (giant worm and pinworm) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 29: Antihelmintics: Mechanism of Action mebendazole (Vermox) • Inhibits uptake of glucose and other nutrients, leading to autolysis and death of the parasitic worm Used to treat cestodes and nematodes Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 30: Antihelmintics: Mechanism of Action niclosamide (Niclocide) • Causes the worm to become dislodged from the GI wall • They are then digested in the intestines and expelled Used to treat cestodes Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 31: Antihelmintics: Mechanism of Action oxamniquine (Vansil) and praziquantel (Biltricide) • Cause paralysis of worms’ musculature and immobilization of their suckers • Cause worms to dislodge from mesenteric veins to the liver, then killed by host tissue reactions Used to treat trematodes, cestodes (praziquantel only) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 32: Antihelmintics: Side Effects niclosamide, oxamniquine, praziquantel, thiabendazole, piperazine, pyrantel • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache mebendazole • diarrhea, abdominal pain, tissue necrosis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 33: Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, Antihelmintic Agents: Nursing Implications • Before beginning therapy, perform a thorough health history and medication history, and assess for allergies. • Check baseline VS. • Check for conditions that may contraindicate use, and for potential drug interactions. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 34: Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, Antihelmintic Agents: Nursing Implications • Some agents may cause the urine to have an asparagus-like odor, or cause an unusual skin odor, or a metallic taste; be sure to warn the patient ahead of time. • Administer ALL agents as ordered and for the prescribed length of time. • Most agents should be taken with food to reduce GI upset. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 35: Antimalarial Agents: Nursing Implications • Assess for presence of malarial symptoms. • When used for prophylaxis, these agents should be started 2 weeks before potential exposure to malaria, and for 8 weeks after leaving the area. • Medications are taken weekly, with 8 ounces of water. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 36: Antimalarial Agents: Nursing Implications • Instruct patient to notify physician immediately if ringing in the ears, hearing decrease, visual difficulties, nausea, vomiting, profuse diarrhea, or abdominal pain occur. • Alert patients to the possible recurrence of the symptoms of malaria so that they will know to seek immediate treatment. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 37: Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, Antihelmintic Agents: Nursing Implications Monitor for side effects: • Ensure that patients know the side effects that should be reported. • Monitor for therapeutic effects and adverse effects with long-term therapy. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.




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