Add to your bookmark Subscribe to Philippine Nurses feed Add to Del.icio.us StumbleUpon Add to Digg Add to Yahoo Bookmark on Google Add to furl Add to Reddit Add to Blinklist Add to Meneame Add to Fark Add to Ma.golia

Join our Nursing Review Community! Subscribe below. Its Free!

Join NurseReview.Org Community!

Get Connected With Other Nurses All Over The World! Its Free!! Enter your email to receive the Nursing Board Exam NLE Quick Result!

Email:

         Nursing Board Exam Result Subscribers PRC December NLE Quick Results Subscription


NurseReview.Org helps nurses all over the world keep in touch with each other. We provide an interactive environment where nurses can share their experience, ask questions regarding issues, provide assistance, etc.

If you want to be informed through email regarding NLE RESULTS, Nursing News, Retrogression Updates, New Nursing Board Exam Question & Answer, Latest Updates Regarding Nclex, please subscribe to us by filling in your email address above.

NOTE: You email address will be kept private and will not be distributed to spammers.

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Antilipemics Updates (nclex medical pharmacology)

If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to our RSS feed. One advantage of subscribing to RSS feeds is that you don't have to constantly re-visit this site to check for updates within specific sections you might be interested in because your browser or Feed reader will do this for you automatically on a regular basis plus you can even get email notification. Thank you so much. Enjoy!




Antilipemics Updates (medical pharmacology) Slideshow Transcript
Slide 1: Antilipemic Agents Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 2: Antilipemics • Drugs used to lower lipid levels Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 3: Triglycerides and Cholesterol • Two primary forms of lipids in the blood • Water-insoluble fats that must be bound to apoproteins, specialized lipid-carrying proteins • Lipoprotein is the the combination of triglyceride or cholesterol with apoprotein Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 4: Types of Lipoproteins Lipid Protein Content Lipoprotein Classification Content Most chylomicron Least  very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL)   Intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL)  Least High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Most Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 5: Instructors may want to insert EIC Image #84: Cholesterol Homeostasis Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 6: Coronary Heart Disease • The risk of CHD in patients with cholesterol levels of 300 mg/dL is 3 to 4 times greater than that in patients with levels less than 300 mg/dL Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 7: Antilipemics • Bile acid sequestrants • HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (HMGs or statins) • Fibric acid derivatives • Niacin (nicotinic acid) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 8: Antilipemics: Bile Acid Sequestrants • cholestyramine (Questran) • colestipol hydrochloride (Colestid) • Also called bile acid-binding resins and ion-exchange resins Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 9: Antilipemics: Bile Acid Sequestrants Mechanism of Action • Prevent resorption of bile acids from small intestine • Bile acids are necessary for absorption of cholesterol Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 10: Antilipemics: Bile Acid Sequestrants Therapeutic Uses • Type II hyperlipoproteinemia • Relief of pruritus associated with partial biliary obstruction (cholestyramine) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 11: Antilipemics: Bile Acid Sequestrants Side Effects • Constipation – Heartburn, nausea, belching, bloating These adverse effects tend to disappear over time Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 12: Antilipemics: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (HMGs or statins) • lovastatin (Mevacor) • pravastatin (Pravachol) • simvastatin (Zocor) • atorvastatin (Lipitor) • cerivastatin (Baycol) • fluvastatin (Lescol) Most potent LDL reducers Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 13: Antilipemics: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Mechanism of Action • Inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, which is used by the liver to produce cholesterol • Lower the rate of cholesterol production Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 14: Antilipemics: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Therapeutic Uses • Treatment of type IIa and IIb hyperlipidemias – Reduce LDL levels by 30 to 40% – Increase HDL levels by 2 to 15% – Reduce triglycerides by 10 to 30% Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 15: Antilipemics: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Side Effects • Mild, transient GI disturbances • Rash • Headache • Myopathy (muscle pain) • Elevations in liver enzymes Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 16: Antilipemics: Fibric Acid Derivatives • clofibrate • gemfibrozil (Lopid) • fenofibrate (Tricor) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 17: Antilipemics: Fibric Acid Derivatives Mechanism of Action • Believed to work by activating lipase, which breaks down cholesterol • Also suppress release of free fatty acid from the adipose tissue, inhibit synthesis of triglycerides in the liver, and increase the secretion of cholesterol in the bile Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 18: Antilipemics: Fibric Acid Derivatives Therapeutic Uses • Treatment of type IV and V hyperlipemias • Treatment of type III, IV, and V hyperlipidemias Decrease the triglyceride levels and increase HDL by as much as 25% Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 19: Antilipemics: Fibric Acid Derivatives Side Effects • Abdominal discomfort • Diarrhea • Nausea • Blurred vision • Increased risk of gallstones • Prolonged prothrombin time • Liver studies may show increased function Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 20: Antilipemics: Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) • Vitamin B3 • Lipid-lowering properties require much higher doses than when used as a vitamin • Effective, inexpensive, often used in combination with other lipid-lowering agents Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 21: Antilipemics: Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) Mechanism of Action • Thought to increase activity of lipase, which breaks down lipids • Reduces the metabolism or catabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 22: Antilipemics: Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) Therapeutic Uses • Effective in lowering triglyceride, total serum cholesterol, and LDL levels • Increases HDL levels • Effective in the treatment of types IIa, IIb, III, IV, and V hyperlipidemias Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 23: Antilipemics: Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) Side Effects • Flushing (due to histamine release) • Pruritus • GI distress Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 24: Antilipemics: Nursing Implications • Before beginning therapy, obtain a thorough health and medication history. • Assess dietary patterns, exercise level, weight, height, VS, tobacco and alcohol use, family history. • Assess for contraindications, conditions that require cautious use, and drug interactions. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 25: Antilipemics: Nursing Implications • Contraindications include biliary obstruction, liver dysfunction, active liver disease. • Obtain baseline liver function studies. • Patients on long-term therapy may need supplemental fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, K). • Take with meals to decrease GI upset. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 26: Antilipemics: Nursing Implications • Patient must be counseled concerning diet and nutrition on an ongoing basis. • Instruct on proper procedure for taking the medications. • Powder forms must be taken with a liquid, mixed thoroughly but not stirred, and NEVER taken dry. • Other medications should be taken 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after meals to avoid interference with absorption. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 27: Antilipemics: Nursing Implications • Clofibrate often causes constipation; instruct patients to increase fiber and fluid intake to offset this effect. • To minimize side effects of niacin, start on low initial dose and gradually increase it, and take with meals. • Small doses of aspirin or NSAIDs may be taken 30 minutes before niacin to minimize cutaneous flushing. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 28: Antilipemics: Nursing Implications • Inform patients that these agents may take several weeks to show effectiveness. • Instruct patients to report persistent GI upset, constipation, abnormal or unusual bleeding, and yellow discoloration of the skin. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 29: Antilipemics: Nursing Implications • Monitor for side effects, including increased liver enzyme studies. • Monitor for therapeutic effects: – Reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.





Article copyright NurseReview.org - #1 source of information to update nurses all over the world. All rights reserved. No part of an article may be reproduced without the prior permission.




0 comments:


Philippine Nurses in Action

Search for Nursing Jobs Abroad!

Quick Nursing Facts:

NLE Results December 2011 Results

December 2011 Nursing Board Exam Successful Examinees for the December NLE 2011

Nursing Board Exam July 2010 NLE PRC

July 2011 Nursing Board Exam Successful Examinee PRC

List of Successful Examinees for Nursing Licensure Examination July 2011 Conducted by the PRC

We are one of the few websites to post results right after the Philippine Regulatory Board have release the list of successful examinees

Results for July 2011 NLE Board Exam

July 2011 NLE Nursing Licensure Examination Results List Of Passers

Recommended Books

Filipino Nurse del.icio.us Tag Rolls

NursingReview.Org Disclaimer

© 2008-2009 NurseReview.Org This site contains links to other Web sites. The owner of this blog has no control over the content or privacy practices of those sites. The information provided here is for general information purpose only. Comments are moderated. If in any case the owner approves a comment, it should not be taken as an endorsement of that comment. The owner doesn't claim full ownership of all photos or articles posted on this site. If the respective copyright owners wish for their photos or articles to be taken down, feel free to e-mail me and it will be taken down immediately.