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Thursday, September 25, 2008

Antacids And Controllers Updates (nclex pharmacology for advanced practice nurses)

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Antacids And Controllers Updates (pharmacology for advanced practice nurses) Slideshow Transcript
Slide 1: Antacids and Acid-Controlling Agents Antacids H2 Antagonists Proton Pump Inhibitors Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 2: Acid-Related Pathophysiology The stomach secretes: • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) • Bicarbonate • Pepsinogen • Intrinsic factor • Mucus • Prostaglandins Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 3: Instructors may want to use EIC Image #121: Stomach: Zones and Different Glands Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 4: Glands of the Stomach • Cardiac • Pyloric • Gastric* *The gastric glands are the largest in number Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 5: Cells of the Gastric Gland • Parietal • Chief • Mucoid Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 6: Cells of the Gastric Gland Parietal Cells • Produce and secrete HCl • Primary site of action for many acid-controller drugs Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 7: Cells of the Gastric Gland Chief Cells • Secrete pepsinogen, a proenzyme • Pepsinogen becomes PEPSIN when activated by exposure to acid • Pepsin breaks down proteins (proteolytic) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 8: Cells of the Gastric Gland Mucoid Cells • Mucus-secreting cells (surface epithelial cells) • Provide a protective mucous coat • Protects against self-digestion by HCl Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 9: Hydrochloric Acid • Secreted by the parietal cells • Maintains stomach at a pH of 1 to 4 • Secretion stimulated by: – Large, fatty meals – Excessive amounts of alcohol – Emotional stress Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 10: Instructors may want to use EIC Image #123: Parietal Cell Stimulation and Secretion Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 11: Acid-Related Diseases • Caused by imbalance of the three cells of the gastric gland and their secretions • Most common: Hyperacidity • Most harmful: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) • Lay terms for overproduction of HCl by the parietal cells: indigestion, sour stomach, heartburn, acid stomach Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 12: Antacids: Mechanism of Action Promote the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms • Secretion of: – Mucus: Protective barrier against HCl – Bicarbonate: Helps buffer acidic properties of HCl – Prostaglandins: Prevent activation of proton pump Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 13: Antacids: Mechanism of Action • Antacids DO NOT prevent the overproduction of acid. • Acids DO neutralize the acid once it’s in the stomach. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 14: Antacids: Drug Effects Reduction of pain associated with acid-related disorders • Raising gastric pH from 1.3 to 1.6 neutralizes 50% of the gastric acid. • Raising gastric pH 1 point (1.3 to 2.3) neutralizes 90% of the gastric acid. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 15: Antacids • OTC formulations available as: Capsules and tablets Powders Chewable tablets Suspensions Effervescent granules and tablets Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 16: Antacids • Aluminum salts • Magnesium salts • Calcium salts • Sodium bicarbonate Used alone or in combination Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 17: Antacids Aluminum Salts • Forms: carbonate, hydroxide, phosphate • Have constipating effects • Often used with magnesium to counteract constipation Example: aluminum carbonate (Basaljel) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 18: Antacids Magnesium Salts • Forms: carbonate, hydroxide, oxide, trisilicate • Commonly cause a laxative effect • Usually used with other agents to counteract this effect • Dangerous when used with renal failure—the failing kidney cannot excrete extra magnesium, resulting in accumulation Examples: magnesium hydroxide (MOM); combination products such as Maalox, Mylanta (aluminum and magnesium) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 19: Antacids Calcium Salts • Forms: many, but carbonate is most common • May cause constipation • Their use may result in kidney stones • Long duration of acid action may cause increased gastric acid secretion (hyperacidity rebound) • Often advertised as an extra source of dietary calcium Example: Tums (calcium carbonate) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 20: Antacids Sodium Bicarbonate • Highly soluble • Quick onset, but short duration • May cause metabolic alkalosis • Sodium content may cause problems in patients with CHF, hypertension, or renal insufficiency Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 21: Antacids and Antiflatulents • Antiflatulents: used to relieve the painful symptoms associated with gas • Several agents are used to bind or alter intestinal gas, and are often added to antacid combination products. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 22: Antacids and Antiflatulents OTC Antiflatulents • activated charcoal • simethicone – Alters elasticity of mucus-coated bubbles, causing them to break. – Used often, but there are limited data to support effectiveness. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 23: Antacids: Side Effects Minimal, and depend on the compound used • Aluminum and calcium – Constipation • Magnesium – Diarrhea • Calcium carbonate – Produces gas and belching; often combined with simethicone Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 24: Antacids: Drug Interactions • Chelation – Chemical binding, or inactivation, of another drug • Chemical inactivation – Produces insoluble complexes • Result: reduced drug absorption Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 25: Antacids: Drug Interactions Increased stomach pH • Increased absorption of basic drugs • Decreased absorption of acidic drugs Increased urinary pH • Increased excretion of acidic drugs • Decreased excretion of basic drugs Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 26: Antacids: Nursing Implications • Assess for allergies and preexisting conditions that may restrict the use of antacids, such as: Fluid imbalances Renal disease CHF Pregnancy GI obstruction • Patients with CHF or hypertension should use low-sodium antacids such as Riopan, Maalox, or Mylanta II. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 27: Antacids: Nursing Implications • Use with caution with other medications due to the many drug interactions. • Most medications should be given 1 to 2 hours after giving an antacid. • Antacids may cause premature dissolving of enteric-coated medications, resulting in stomach upset. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 28: Antacids: Nursing Implications • Be sure that chewable tablets are chewed thoroughly, and liquid forms are shaken well before giving. • Administer with at least 8 ounces of water to enhance absorption (except for the “rapid dissolve” forms). • Caffeine, alcohol, harsh spices, and black pepper may aggravate the underlying GI condition. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 29: Antacids: Nursing Implications • Monitor for side effects: – Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea – With calcium-containing products: constipation, acid rebound • Monitor for therapeutic response: – Notify heath care provider if symptoms are not relieved. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 30: Histamine Type 2 (H2) Antagonists Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 31: H2 Antagonists • Reduce acid secretion • All available OTC • Most popular drugs for treatment of acid- related disorders cimetidine (Tagamet) famotidine (Pepcid) nizatidine (Axid) ranitidine (Zantac) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 32: H2 Antagonists: Mechanism of Action • Block histamine (H2) at the receptors of acid- producing parietal cells • Production of hydrogen ions is reduced, resulting in decreased production of HCl Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 33: H2 Antagonists: Drug Effect • Suppressed acid secretion in the stomach Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 34: H2 Antagonists: Therapeutic Uses • Shown to be effective for: Gastric ulcer Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Upper GI Duodenal ulcer (with or bleeding without H. pylori) • May be effective for: – Stress ulcers Peptic esophagitis – Prevention and management of allergic conditions, when used with H1 blockers Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 35: H2 Antagonists: Side Effects • Overall, less than 3% incidence of side effects • Cimetidine may induce impotence and gynecomastia Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 36: H2 Antagonists: Drug Interactions • Cimetidine – Binds with P-450 microsomal oxidase system in the liver, resulting in inhibited oxidation of many drugs and increased drug levels – All H2 antagonists may inhibit the absorption of drugs that require an acidic GI environment for absorption. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 37: H2 Antagonists: Drug Interactions • SMOKING has been shown to decrease the effectiveness of H2 blockers Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 38: H2 Antagonists: Nursing Implications • Assess for allergies and impaired renal or liver function. • Use with caution in patients who are confused, disoriented, or elderly. • Take 1 hour before or after antacids. • Ranitidine may be given intravenously; follow administration guidelines. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 39: Proton Pump Inhibitors Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 40: Proton Pump Inhibitors • The parietal cells release positive hydrogen ions (protons) during HCl production. • This process is called the “proton pump.” • H2 blockers and antihistamines do not stop the action of this pump. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 41: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action Irreversibly bind to H+/K+ ATPase enzyme. • This bond prevents the movement of hydrogen ions from the parietal cell into the stomach. • Result: Achlorhydria—ALL gastric acid secretion is blocked. – In order to return to normal acid secretion, the parietal cell must synthesize new H+/K+ ATPase. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 42: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Drug Effect • Total inhibition of gastric acid secretion lansoprazole (Prevacid) omeprazole (Prilosec) rabeprazole (Aciphex) pantoprazole (Protonix) esomeprazole (Nexium) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 43: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Therapeutic Uses • GERD maintenance therapy • Erosive esophagitis • Short-term treatment of active duodenal and benign gastric ulcers • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome • Treatment of H. pylori-induced ulcers Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 44: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Side Effects • Safe for short-term therapy • Incidence low and uncommon Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 45: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Nursing Implications • Assess for allergies and history of liver disease • Pantoprazole is the only proton pump inhibitor available for parenteral administration, and can be used for patients who are unable to take oral medications • May increase serum levels of diazepam, phenytoin, and cause increased chance for bleeding with warfarin Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 46: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Nursing Implications Instruct the patient taking omeprazole: • It should be taken before meals. • The capsule should be swallowed whole, not crushed, opened or chewed. • It may be given with antacids. • Emphasize that the treatment will be short-term. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 47: Other Drugs • sucralfate (Carafate) • misoprostol (Cytotec) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 48: Sucralfate (Carafate) • Cytoprotective agent • Used for stress ulcers, erosions, PUD • Attracted to and binds to the base of ulcers and erosions, forming a protective barrier over these areas • Protects these areas from pepsin, which normally breaks down proteins (making ulcers worse) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 49: Sucralfate (Carafate) • Little absorption from the gut • May cause constipation, nausea, and dry mouth • May impair absorption of other drugs, especially tetracycline • Binds with phosphate; may be used in chronic renal failure to reduce phosphate levels • Do not administer with other medications Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 50: misoprostol (Cytotec) • Synthetic prostaglandin analogue • Prostaglandins have cytoprotective activity: – Protect gastric mucosa from injury by enhancing local production of mucus or bicarbonate – Promote local cell regeneration – Help to maintain mucosal blood flow Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Slide 51: misoprostol (Cytotec) • Used for prevention of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers • Doses that are therapeutic enough to treat duodenal ulcers often produce abdominal cramps, diarrhea Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.




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