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Saturday, May 24, 2008

Study Skills and Test Strategies for the New Nursing Student

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Study Skills and Test Strategies for the New Nursing Student Slide Transcript
Slide 1: Study Skills and Test Strategies for the New Nursing Student BY Caralee Bromme, RN, MSN, CCRN

Slide 2: How learners learn... Tell me and I will forget Show me and I will remember Involve me and I will understand (Confucius)

Slide 3: Critical thinking • Critical thinking is the cornerstone of one's ability to function in today's society. According to Scriven & Paul (n.d.), • it...can be seen as having two components: – a set of skills to process and generate information and beliefs, and – the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behavior. – (Scriven & Paul, nd: http://www.criticalthinking.org/University/univclass/Defining.html)

Slide 4: Critical Thinking • Critical thinking is a mental process that uses elements of reasoning to shape choices and make sound judgements. A good question is never answered. It is not a bolt to be Tightened into place But seed to be planted Towards the hope of greening And bear more seed... The landscape of ideas (John Ciardi)

Slide 5: Types of Learners • Right Brain • Left Brain – Artistic perception – Language and word use – Creativity – Logic, reasoning & – Intuitive thinking analysis – Music and rhythm – Rational thinking – Imagination and – Sequence and order abstraction – Daydreaming – Reflection – Random thinking

Slide 6: Learning Styles • Visual • Auditory • Kinesthetic • Global • Detail learning

Slide 7: Visual • Seeing is believing – Learn best by watching or reading • Resources available – Books – Demonstrations – Handouts – Internet resources – Personal notes – Periodicals – Videos

Slide 8: Auditory • Sounds like….. – You tune into the things you hear • Discussions with others • Lectures • Question and answer sessions • Reading procedures aloud • Study groups • Tape recordings

Slide 9: Kinesthetic • Can do… – If you prefer to jump right in and do something new... your motto “ Learn by doing” • Attend workshops • Give return demonstrations • Participate in individual or group projects • Take part in special or extra activities • Volunteer

Slide 10: Global Learning • The big picture… – Find the answer by looking at the big picture • Sweeping theories and over all trends fill your vision • Like to find the conclusion after considering all the options – Write summaries of your notes – Use diagrams to show relationships – Develop question lists

Slide 11: Detail Thinking • You follow instructions closely and follow logical orders and you like the teacher who follows the lessons plan closely • Create bullet summary lists from class notes • Use diagrams to connect specific ideas to larger concepts • Make specific to do lists before beginning study sessions • Write questions as they appear in the reading • Be prepared to illustrate specific details with examples

Slide 12: The Learning Process Bloom’s Learning Level (1956) Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge

Slide 13: Bloom’s Learning Levels • Knowledge stage of critical thinking – Requires memorization for recall • Math formulas • Phone numbers • Comprehension – Involves converting information from the form received to your own words • Making illustrations • Describing relationships

Slide 14: Bloom’s Learning Levels • Application – You apply the information you have gained, translated or interpreted to solve problems or accomplish concrete tasks • Completing a project by following directions • Using a theory or formula to solve a problem • Analysis – You break down the concept into parts and understand how they work • Identify assumptions • Decide if data valid

Slide 15: Bloom’s Learning Levels • Synthesis – You can put parts together and find a new and larger whole • Developing your notes into presentation • Writing a poem or story • Evaluation – Most complex level of cognitive functioning • You use all the stages to determine the value and relevance of the information • Springhouse 2000

Slide 16: The Nursing Process Evaluation Implementation Planning Analysis Assessment

Slide 17: Now critical thinking and the nursing process.. • Assessment – Collect data, communicate information about assessments • Analysis/ Nursing Diagnosis – Clustering and interpreting data, identifying and communicating nursing diagnosis • Planning – Identifying goals, projecting outcomes, setting priorities, identifying interventions • Implementation – Implementing nursing care • Evaluation – Identifying patient responses, comparing outcomes to goals, modifying plan of care. “This is process of how we think about patients” Now let’s apply the same process to tests

Slide 18: The next step - Setting the stage… An action plan gives you control over your immediate future. It helps reduce stress, anxiety, frustration, and unnecessary use of time and energy. If you don’t have a plan, you jeopardize your chance to succeed and increase your chance for failure. A winner has a plan! A loser has an excuse! (Sides and Korchek)

Slide 19: The keys for success • Develop the winning attitude • Identify motivators • Set short term and long term goals • Use time management • Reward yourself

Slide 20: Time management Laundry Studying House Self Significant Other/ Spouse Kids Work Clinical School How do you handle it all?

Slide 21: Setting the stage... Do Not Disturb • Make a consistent Until 5:00pm space for yourself to study • Insure adequate lighting, and quietness • Have all your supplies • Schedule your time

Slide 22: Time management • Schedule your time – To study – For kids/ husband 8am class Test on Friday – For house 10am study Culture project • Develop weekly group Due 3 weeks 3pm baseball calendar 6pm date w/ Care study due 5 weeks • Set priorities husband get patient • Make to do lists • Don’t procrastinate

Slide 23: Breaking the procrastination habit • Identify your motivators – Make a list of self motivating statements – Recognize that negative predictions do come true • Set your goals – Establish a clear timetable – Break down large tasks to small ones – Pinpoint where your delay s typically start – Write reminders • Reward yourself – Also give up something if you fail

Slide 24: It’s time to study … • What is an objective? – Objectives are tools for describing the intended outcomes • Performance – What your supposed to do... • Conditions – How your to do it... • Criterion – How well you have to perform to be competent ...

Slide 25: An example of an objective • After listening to the lecture, the student will be able to – List in writing the three parts of an objective. – Identify why objectives are important. – Analyze the importance of objectives in future study. • Nursing courses are based on objectives

Slide 26: Study strategies for the classroom • Be prepared • During class pay attention to – Read objectives – Contents of handouts – Anything written on board – Look at and read section headings – Instructor’s response to certain questions – Look at all charts or – Anything instructor stresses or illustrations and read repeats captions – How instructor presents the – Skim main text to identify information main concepts • Big picture or details – Look at words in bold or – In the beginning and the end of Italics the lecture, the instructor often – The goal is to gain the summarizes the major points and other points there wasn’t general idea time to cover

Slide 27: The lecture notes…. • Taking notes may be the most crucial part of active listening during a lecture. – Notes trigger you memory – It makes you pay attention to new ideas – Will allow you to show your understanding by paraphrasing and condensing the notes

Slide 28: Test taking strategies • Outline your notes to each disease – With info from lecture and book • Pathophysiology of disease/ system • Signs and symptoms (including labs) – Highlight special S&S • such as RLQ pain for appy • Nursing Diagnosis • Goals • Specific Implementation plans • Patient teaching

Slide 29: Ideas on lecture notes • Shrthnd spds note tkng • After class organize – Abbreviate common words you notes – Leave out conjunctures and – Keep them personal other words not essential – Copy all board work for thought – Rewrite notes if illegible – Think before you write – Keep notes in loose leaf – Mark for emphasis binder – Vary handwriting to stay – Leave spaces to later ideas organized – Organize your notes after – Don’t write every word the class lecture says...

Slide 30: The LISAN Method • Lead , don’t follow. Anticipate what the instructor is going to say. • Ideas. What’s the main idea? • Signal Words. Listen for words that tell you the direction the instructor is taking. • Actively listen. Ask questions, be prepared. • Note taking. Write down key points. Be selective.

Slide 31: The study group • Set location and time • Have agenda • Everyone must follow the rules – Do their share – Be courteous – Attend regularly • Can be a great source of moral support

Slide 32: It’s test time… • Before the test.. – Get a good night sleep – Eat before the test • Create a study plan – Plan ahead; schedule study time . Don’t cram. – Assemble your sources. Review your material. – Make your own cheat/ summary sheet – Dress rehearse.

Slide 33: At the test… • Take one last, leisurely look at your summary sheet • Be early • Have all your supplies • Let the instructions instruct – Mark important instructions – Skim the test for an overall sense and difficulty • Budget your time – Work quickly – If you can’t answer the question right away move to the next question

Slide 34: The Objective Test • Types – Multiple choice – True/ false – Short- answer – Sentence - completion – Problem solving • Only one possible answer • Tests your ability to recall information.

Slide 35: The Test Question Test • Three parts of a question are A. – The background statement B. • Is a brief scenario that provided necessary C. information for answering the question • May provide a framework for the stem – A stem • Contains the specific problem or intent of the item – And a list of options • Are the possible answers to the questions • The corrected answered is a keyed response and the other options are distracters.

Slide 36: Types of questions • Knowledge – Recall or remembered information • Comprehension questions – Need to understand the information • Application Questions – Show, solve, use or manipulate information • Analysis – Interpret data, recognize commonalties, differences, interrelationships among presented ideas

Slide 37: The Stem • Three forms of a stem in a question – Background statement • A young woman arrived to the hospital in early labor. – Stem in question form • Which of the following signs is the best indicator of early labor? – Stem form in an incomplete statement • The best indicator that labor is progressing is...

Slide 38: Answering the question... • Read the question before looking at the options. • Identify key words in the stem – All of the following behaviors are typical of a 3 year old except • The word except directs you to behaviors not typical • If you miss the word , you will select the wrong answer • Look for key words – First , primary, initial, early, ,most important, except Haste makes waste and errors

Slide 39: Test taking strategies • Prioritization • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Biological • Safety • Belonging and love • Esteem needs • Self actualization

Slide 40: Test taking strategies • If you have to guess think physiological needs first… • Think.. • Airway • Breathing • Circulation • Disability • Safety second • Communication • Also do not forget the nursing process

Slide 41: The options… • Attempt to answer the question without looking at the responses. Identify your response in the options. • Eliminate the obviously incorrect responses first; The select the best of the remaining options. • Do not change answers without good reason or sound rational.

Slide 42: Next... • Identify the theme of the item and base it on the information given. • Don’t assume information that is not given. A husband was admitted to the ER for Delirium tremors for the third time in 3 weeks, the wife asks you what can I do to to help my husband get over the problem? a.Don’t feel guilty; I know this must be difficult for you b.Let’s go in to the lounge; so we can talk about your concerns. c.You need to convince him to seek professional help. d. How long has you husband been drinking?

Slide 43: Test taking strategies • The client has a red, raised skin rash. During the bath, the priority action of the nurse is to: • a. Assess for further inflammatory reactions • b. Discuss the body-image problems created by the presence of the rash • c. Wash the skin thoroughly with hot water and soap • d. Moisturize the skin to prevent drying.

Slide 44: Test taking strategies • To promote respiratory function in the immobilized client, the nurse should: 2. Change the client’s position q4-8 3. Encourage deep breathing and coughing every hour 4. Use oxygen and nebulizer treatments regularly 5. Suction the client every hour

Slide 45: Other tips… • Responses that use absolute words, such as “always” or “never” are less likely to be correct than “usually” or “probable”. • Funny responses are usually wrong. • “All of the above” is usually correct. • “None of the above” is usually incorrect. • Watch for double negatives. • Look for grammatical clues – If stem ends in an; the answer should start with a vowel • The longest response is often the correct one • Look for verb associations.

Slide 46: Test taking strategies • To provide for the psychosocial needs of an immobilized client, an appropriate statement by the nurse is: • a. “The staff will limit your visitors so that you will not be bothered.” • b. “A roommate can be a real bother. You’d probably rather have a private room.” • c. “Let’s discuss the routine to see if there are any changes we can make.” • d. “I think you should have your hair done and put on some make-up.”

Slide 47: More tips… • If all else falls answer B or C. • Do not hesitate to ask for clarification during the exam. • Be sure that you have the appropriate bubbles filled correctly. • Take time to check your work before handing in the answer sheet.

Slide 48: Other Objective Tests • True/ False Answers • Short Answers • Assesses recognition of • Break into 3 categories material – Know w/o hesitation • If question only part – Should be able to true , than it’s false answer if you think about it • Watch for key words – Have no idea – All, always, because • Answer the questions – Generally, never you know first than – None, only, sometimes attack the rest – usually

Slide 49: Essay tests • Read directions first • Read all the questions even if you only have to answer two. Jot down ideas about each. • Mark the time you estimate to complete each question. • Outline you answer 1. 2. • Write the answer 3. 4. 5.

Slide 50: The Essay Question 5 Paragraph Format • 1 - Introduction, in which you briefly outline the direction your argument is taking • 2 - 1st point with at least 2 supporting facts • 3- 2nd point with 2 supporting facts • 4 - 3rd point with 2 supporting facts • Conclusion, which pulls together the 3 points into one final statement

Slide 51: Reading Comprehension Tests • Read the instructions first • Read the questions next • Read the passage and A. answer the questions B. C.

Slide 52: Open Book Tests • De-emphasize memorization and encourages critical thinking • Ideas for success – Use table of contents and index. – Don’t copy from the book. – Use as many sources as allowed. – Use you note summary sheet, put as much info as possible on it. – Check your answers.

Slide 53: How can I avoid cramming? • It doesn’t work- the brain needs time to assimilate information • If you have to: – Outline the textbook – Read the objectives • Focus on chapter headings,summaries, highlighted words • First and last sentence of the paragraph • Read your notes, make flash card or summary sheet • Get at least 4 hour sleep • And review 1 hour before the test.

Slide 54: How to overcome test anxiety • Be prepared. I can do this!!! • Worry about what is real. • Arrive early and get organized. • Don’t talk about the test with your classmates. • Read over the test and plan your approach. • If a question is unclear, don.t hesitate to clarify. • Try to relax. Take slow deep breaths. • Pay attention to he test and not everyone else in the room.

Slide 55: Pulling it all together... • Learning process • Study strategies • Test taking strategies We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.




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