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Saturday, May 3, 2008

Nclex Review Materials: Resource Bullets 2

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  • A partial-thickness superficial burn appears wet, shiny, and weeping or may contain blisters.
  • A partial-thinkness deep burn appears dry and may be deep red or white. No blanching occurs and thrombosed vessels may be visible.
  • Hypercalcemia is a serum calcium ion level greater than 11 mg/dl or 5.5 mEq/L.
  • Keratoplasty is referred to as corneal tranplantation or grafting
  • The 3 characteristic symptoms of Menieres disease are tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss on the involved side.
  • Otoscopy is an examination that involves looking into the ear with an instrument called an otoscope (or auriscope).
  • Nystagmus is an uncontrolled movement of the eyes, usually from side to side, but sometimes the eyes swing up and down or even in a circular movement
  • Presbycusis is the loss of hearing that gradually occurs in most individuals as they grow older.
  • Tinnitus is the most common compaint of clients with otological disorders, esp. disorders involving the inner ear.
  • Nikolsky's sign is a clinical dermatological sign in which blisters spread easily upon application of horizontal, tangential pressure to the skin.
  • Pemphigus hallmark sign is Nikolsky sign which occurs when the epidermis can be rubbed off by slight friction or injury. Its a rare, autoimmune skin disorder that causes blistering and raw sores on skin and mucous membranes.
  • Scabies can be identified by the presence of multiple straight or wavy threadlike lines beneath the skin. The skin lesions are caused by a female mites that burrows beneath the skin and lays its eggs.
  • A melanoma is an irregularly shaped, pigmented papule or plaque with a red, white or blue color.
  • Basal cell carcinoma appears as a pearly papule with a central crater and rolled waxy border.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is a firm, nodular lesion topped with a crust or a central area of ulceration.
  • A hydrocele is an abnormal collection of fluid within the layers of the tunica vaginalis that surrounds the testis. It may be unilateral or bilateral and can occur in an infant or adult.
  • A Cunningham clamp is a adjustable, lightweight, foam-lined molded clamp that fits over the penis behind the glans. It is sed for client experiencing urinary incontinence.
  • Raynaud disease (RAY-noz) is a vascular disorder that affects blood flow to the extremities which include the fingers, toes, nose and ears when exposed to temperature changes or stress.
  • Osteomalacia is the general term for the softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization. Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets
  • Calcium supplements should not be taken with whole grain cereals, rhubarb, spinach, or bran because these foods decrease the absorption of the calcium.
  • A blunted affect is a minimal emotional response and expresses the clients outward affect.
  • Caput succedaneum - swelling of the soft tissues of the head
  • Cephalhematoma - edema resulting from bleeding below the periosteum of the cranium
  • An increased interest in sounds occurs between 6 and 8 months for an infant.
  • Babbling sound begin between the ages of 3 and 4 months.
  • Between the ages of 1 and 3 months the infant produces cooing sounds.
  • Use of gestures occurs between 9 and 12 months.
  • At age 15 mnts the child would be expected to build a tower of 2 blocks.
  • At age of 18 months the child would be expected to build a tower of 4 to 5 blocks.
  • At age 30 mnts the child would be expected to snap large snaps and put on simple clothes independently.
  • An increase pH and bicarbonate level indicate metabolic alkalosis.
  • Urine specific gravity is normally 1.010 to 1.030.
  • Arterial ischemic leg ulcers are characteristically deep, pale and painful.
  • Intermittent claudication is the name given to leg pain that occurs with exercise and relieved by rest.
  • Aldactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic used to treat edema, high blood pressure and hyperaldosteronium.
  • Maturational crises involve developmental crises at any transition point in life, such as marriage, pregnancy, or retirement.
  • Situational crises are adverse happenings that disturb a person's functionaning, such as death of a loved one, divorce or illness.
  • Adventitious crises involve unexpected accidents, such as floods or earthquakes.
  • Onspecific crisis is unrelated to this situation.
  • Brown-S-Quard syndrone results from hemisection of the spinal cord, resulting in ipsilateral paralysis and loss of tuch, pressure, vibration.

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