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Sunday, April 27, 2008

NLE Review: Vital Signs, Pulse, Respiration

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Normal Temperature: 37 degrees Celsius or 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

Hypothalamus is the temperature center.

When taking temperature (Rectal 2-3 mins; Oral 3-5 mins; axillary 6-9 mins)

Remittent fever means temperature fluctuates and is non-normal between fluctuation.

Relapsing fever means short febrile periods of a few days.

Intermittent fever means that temperature fluctuates and is normal on fluctuation.

Factors affecting heat production

1. Radiation - transfer of heat from surface to surface without contact.
2. Conduction - transfer of heat from surface to surface through contact.
3. Convection - dispersion of heat by air currents
4. Vaporation - evaporation of moisture.

Convertion from Celsius to Fahreheit
F = (Temperature in Celsius) x 1.8 + 32

Convertion from Fahreheit to Celsius
C = (Temperature in Fahrenheit) -32 / 1.8

Where to elicit PULSE
1. Temporal pulse
2. Carotid pulse
3. Brachial pulse
4. Radial pulse
5. Femoral pulse
6. Popliteal pulse
7. Posterior Tibial pulse
8. Dorsalis Pedis pulse

Pulse Deficit - is the difference between the apical and the peripheral pulse. Two nurses need to take this.

Pulse Pressure - is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure in the blood pressure.

Korotkoff's sound is the sound heard when taking blood pressure.

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure:
1. Pumping action of the heart
2. Peripheral vacualr Resistance
3. Blood volume
4. Blood Viscosity

Repiratory center is the Medulla and the Pons

Cheyne-Stokes breathing- from very slow to very deep breathing floowed by period of apnea

Kussmual breathing - rapid, deep and labored breathing found in diabetic ketoacidosis and in renal failure.

Orthopnea - can breath in upright position

Stridor - a shrill, harse sound heard on inspiration

Wheeze - high pitched musical sound on expiration

Intercostals retraction - indrawing between ribs

Substernal retration - indrawing between breastbone

Suprasternal retraction - indrawing above the clavicle

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