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Thursday, April 3, 2008

Infection Control : Standard Precautions

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Purpose: Used to prevent nosocomial infections - appliad to all patients.

  • Hand washing: Performed before and after working with all patients, after removing gloves, and whever hands become contaminated with blood or other body fluids.
  • Gloves: worn wherever contact with body fluids is likely
  • Mask and/or eye cover: Worn when splashing of body fluids is likely.
  • Gown: Worn when soiling of exposed skin or clothing is likely
  • Needles/sharps: Do not recap or break needles; discard all sharp objects immediatly in a puncture-resistant container.
  • Properly clean or discard patient care equipment
  • Place contaminated linen in a leak-proof bag.

Transmission-Based Precautions

Airborne precautions
Disease:
Diseases transmitted by small droplet nuclei (smaller than 5 microns) such as chickenpox, measles, TB, etc.

Barrier Protection:
Private room; negative airflow of at least six air exchanges per hr; repirator or mask



Droplet precautions
Disease:
Diseases transmitted by large droplets from mucous membranes, nose, mouth (large than 5 microns) such as streptococcal, pharyngitis, pertussis, mumps, phemonic plaque, meningoccocal, pnemonia, etc.

Barrier Protection:
Private room; mask when within 3 ft. of patient



Contact precautions
Disease:
Diseases transmitted by direct patient or environmental contact, such as colonization or infection with drug-resistant organism, wound infections, herpes simplex, scabies, etc.

Barrier Protection:
Private room; gloves, gown




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