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Sunday, October 7, 2007

Digestive System :: Anatomy & Physiology :: Review For Nursing Licensure Examination

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Review For Nursing Licensure Examination :: Anatomy & Physiology :: Digestive System Slides Transcript
Slide 1: The digestive system

Slide 2: The DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Alimentary tract composed of organs, the primary function of which is the ingestion, digestion and absorption of nutrients

Slide 3: The DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Consists of the tube extending from the mouth to the anus together with the associated organs- salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder

Slide 5: The GIT The tract is long, fibromuscular tube lined internally by specialized epithelium for secretion and absorption

Slide 6: The GIT The wall is divided into Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis layer (inner circular and outer longitudinal) and Serosa/adventitia

Slide 7: Fig. 16.2

Slide 8: GENERAL FUNCTIONS Ingestion of food into the mouth Moves food along the digestive tract Mechanically digests the food into small particles

Slide 9: GENERAL FUNCTIONS Chemically digests the food into simple molecules Absorbs nutrients into the portal and lymphatic circulation

Slide 10: The MOUTH Extends from the lips to the orophaynx Initial digestion of carbohydrates occurs here Contains the teeth, tongue, palate, salivary glands and tonsils

Slide 11: Salivary glands 1. Parotid= secretes purely serous, Stensen’s duct 2.Submandibular/submaxillay= secretes mixed saliva, with Wharton’s duct 3. Sublingual= secretes mixed saliva, with two ducts- duct of Rivinus and duct of Bartholin

Slide 13: The Pharynx Oropharynx is a passageway of both food and air

Slide 14: The Esophagus Muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach With upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter

Slide 15: The Esophagus Function: to propel food to the stomach

Slide 16: The Stomach J-shaped dilatable part of the GIT Located on the epigastric area and right upper quadrant With 3 parts:  1. Fundus  2. Body  3. Pylorus

Slide 17: Cells in the stomach 1. Mucus cells 2. Chief cells/principal cells/Zymogenic cells 3. Parietal Cells 4. Argentaffin cells

Slide 18: Cells in the stomach 1. Mucus cells- secrete mucus for protection of the mucosa

Slide 19: Cells in the stomach 2. Chief cells/principal cells/Zymogenic cells secrete Pepsinogen needed for protein digestion

Slide 20: Cells in the stomach 3. Parietal cells/Oxyntic cells- secrete Hydrochloric acid to activate pepsinogen and Intrinsic factor needed to absorb Vitamin B12

Slide 21: Cells in the stomach 4. Argentaffin cells- secrete Serotonin

Slide 22: Small intestine Characteristics: Provided with mesentery Presence of villi Presence of plicae circularis Lined by simple columnar

Slide 23: Fig. 16.14

Slide 24: Parts of Small Intestine 1. DUODENUM- shortest part 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum- longest part

Slide 25: Parts of Small Intestine

Slide 26: Large intestine Characteristics Presence of haustra Presence of taenia coli Presence of appendices epiploicae

Slide 27: Large intestine Characteristics No villi With mesocolon on the appendix, transverse colon and sigmoid colon

Slide 28: Parts of the large intestine Cecum Appendix Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon rectum

Slide 30: Anus The anal canal is the last portion of the tract, surrounded by an internal and external anal sphincter

Slide 31: The Peritoneum Serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity Parietal peritoneum- abdominal wall Visceral peritoneum- visceral organs

Slide 32: Fig. 16.3

Slide 33: The Peritoneum Retroperitoneal organs are found posterior to the peritoneum- kidney, pancreas, duodenum, ascending and descending colon, rectum

Slide 34: Mesentery This is a peritoneum folded upon itself extending from the organ to the abdominal wall

Slide 35: Blood supply of the GIT Branches of the celiac trunk Left gastric artery Hepatic artery Superior mesenteric artery

Slide 36: Accessory organs Pancreas A pistol-shaped organ both an endocrine and exocrine gland Parts: head, body and tail Ducts: major is Wirsung, minor is Santorini

Slide 38: Accessory organ Liver Largest internal organ Located on the right upper quadrant With right and left lobes Functions to secrete bile

Slide 39: Liver physiology and Pathophysiology Normal Function Abnormality in function 1. Stores glycogen = Hypoglycemia 2. Synthesizes proteins = Hypo-proteinemia 3. Synthesizes globulins =Decreased Antibody formation risk for INFECTION 4. Synthesizes Clotting factors = Bleeding tendencies 5. Secreting bile = Jaundice and pruritus 6. Converts ammonia to urea =Hyper-ammonemia 7. Stores Vitamims and =Deficiencies of Vit and min minerals 8. Metabolizes estrogen = Gynecomastia, testes atrophy

Slide 41: Accessory organ Gallbladder Pear-shaped organ on the right upper quadrant below the liver Parts: fundus, body and neck Functions to store and concentrate bile

Slide 43: PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GIT

Slide 44: Movement Mouth Chewing or mastication

Slide 45: Secretions Mouth Salivary secretions- salivary amylase or ptyalin begins the digestion of carbohydrates

Slide 46: Movements Mouth and esophagus: Deglutition 1. Voluntary phase- food bolus is pushed by tongue to the pharynx 2. Pharyngeal phase- reflex action 3. Esophageal phase- peristaltic waves moves the food towards the stomach

Slide 47: Stomach movement Mixing waves Peristaltic movements

Slide 48: Fig. 16.12

Slide 49: Secretions Stomach 1. Mucus- by the mucus cells for mucosal protection 2. HCL from parietal cells 3. Pepsinogen from chief cells 4. Intrinsic factor from parietal cells 5. Gastrin =a hormone from the antral G cells

Slide 50: Secretions Stomach Digestion for lipids:  Gastric lipase Digestion for proteins:  Pepsin No enyme for carbohydrates

Slide 51: Regulation of stomach secretions 1. Cephalic phase- stomach secretions are initiated by the sight, smell, thought and taste of food

Slide 52: Regulation of stomach secretions 2. Gastric phase- secretions are produced upon stomach distention

Slide 53: Regulation of stomach secretions 3. Intestinal phase- acidic chyme from the stomach passes into the duodenum causing inhibition of gastric secretions

Slide 54: Small intestine: movement 1. Segmental contraction mixes food occurring over short distance 2. Peristalsis propels food all throughout the entire intestine

Slide 55: Fig. 16.9

Slide 56: Small intestine: secretions 1. Intestinal lipase for lipids 2. Dissacharidases from the intestinal cells that complete the digestion of carbohydrates 3. Peptidases from the intestinal cells complete the digestion of proteins

Slide 57: Fig. 16.22

Slide 59: Large Intestine: secretion and movement Mucus for mucosal protection Mass movement- short peristaltic movement

Slide 60: Large Intestine: secretion and movement Defecation reflex- moves the feces to the internal anal sphincter, mediated by the parasympathetic nerves Distention causes the reflex

Slide 61: Liver secretion Bile- aids in emulsifying the fats

Slide 62: Pancreatic secretions 1. Bicarbonate- to neutralize the acidic chyme from the stomach 2. Pancreatic amylase- for carbohydrate digestion

Slide 63: Pancreatic secretions 3. Pancreatic lipase- for fat digestion 4. Trypsin and chymotrypsin- for protein digestion

Slide 64: End of GIT

Slide 65: THE URINARY SYTEM The excretory system consisting of the kidney, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra

Slide 67: Major functions Eliminates wastes Controls blood and fluid volume Regulates acid-base balance Regulates RBC production by erythropoietin

Slide 68: The Kidney Retroperitoneal organ surrounded by capsule and fats Right is lower than the left The substance is composed of renal cortex ( where nephrons are located) and renal medulla ( where collecting ducts are found)

Slide 70: The Nephron Functional unit of the kidney that produces urine by filtration Composed of Efferent arteriole   Glomerulus  Afferent arteriole  Bowman’s capsule  Convoluted tubules- proximal, loop of Henle and distal

Slide 72: Special cells in the nephron Juxtaglomerular cells- secrete renin and erythropoietin Podocytes

Slide 73: Blood supply of the kidney • Renal artery- branch of the abdominal aorta • Renal vein- drains into the inferior venal cava

Slide 74: Renal pelvis Funnel-shaped expanded portion of the ureter Formed by the calyces Collects urine from the kidney

Slide 75: The Ureter Left and right A long slender tube that propels urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder With smooth muscles and transitional epithelium With innervations from the sympathetic and parasympathetic

Slide 77: The urinary bladder Hollow pyramid shaped organ located in the pelvis Lined with transitional epithelium With thick detrusor muscles Micturition reflex resulting from the distension of the organ Impulses are transmitted to the sacral parasympathetic segments to initiate urination

Slide 78: Fig. 18.17

Slide 79: Urethra Tube extending from the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice 1 ½ inches in females  3 parts in Males 1. Prostatic urethra- most dilatable 2. Membranous urethra- least dilatable and shortest 3. Penile urethra- longest

Slide 81: Renal Physiology Urine formation 1. Urinary blood flow 2. Glomerular filtration 3. Tubular reabsorption 4. tubular secretion

Slide 85: Fig. 18.12

Slide 86: Fig. 18.13

Slide 87: Fig. 18.14

Slide 88: End of renal

Slide 89: The MALE Reproductive system Made up of organs, ducts and glands whose function is to produce spermatozoa and androgens

Slide 90: Internal Male reproductive organs 1. Testes 2. Ducts- epididymis, vas deferens and ejacularoty duct 3. Glands- prostate and Cowper’s 4. Seminal vesicle

Slide 91: The testes Male gonad housed in the scrotum Divided into lobules containing tubules and cells Sperm cells are produced in the seminiferous tubules Leydig cells secrete testosterone

Slide 92: Spermatogenesis Begins during puberty Occurs in the seminiferous tubules Spermatogonia divides by MITOSIS into primary spermatocytes Primary spermatocytes divide by MEOSIS to produce secondary spermatocytes

Slide 94: Spermiogenesis Maturation of sperm cells Secondary spermatocytes become spermatids and go to the epididymis for maturation into spermatozoa

Slide 95: Ducts 1. Epididymis- coiled tube 2. Vas deferens- long tube from the epididymis to the seminal vesicle 3. Ejaculatory duct- formed by the union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle

Slide 96: Glands 1. Prostate gland- glandular and muscular tissue produces likely, slightly acidic fluid and contributes 20% of the semen 2. Seminal Vesicle- convoluted pouch, secretes alkaline fluid and fructose contributing to the bulk of the semen 3. Cowper’s glands- secrete mucus for lubrication

Slide 97: Fig. 19.5a

Slide 98: External genitalia 1. Scrotum- two chambered sac contains the testes 2. Penis- erectile tissue consists of two corpora cavernosa and one corpora spongiosa  With 3 parts- bulb, shaft and glans

Slide 99: The semen Mixture of glandular secretions from the prostate and seminal vesicle and spermatozoa from the testes Volume: 2.5-5 ml Sperm count- 50-150 million per ml

Slide 100: SEMEN:  Is a thick whitish fluid ejaculated by the male during orgasm, contains spermatozoa and fructose-rich nutrients.  During ejaculation, semen receives contributions of fluid from  Prostate gland  Seminal vesicle  Epididymis  Bulbourethral gland  Average pH = 7.5  The average amount of semen released during ejaculation is 2.5 -5 ml. It can live with in the female genital tract for about 24 to 72 hours.  (60-200 million/ml of ejaculation ave. of 400 million/ ejaculation )  90 seconds- cervix  5 minutes.- end of fallopian tube

Slide 101: THE FEMALE reproductive system Group of organs with the function of production of ovum and sex hormones

Slide 102: Parts of the reproductive system EXTERNAL INTERNAL (vulva) 1. Ovary 1. Mons pubis 2. Fallopian 2. Labia majora tubes 3. Labia majora 3. Uterus 4. Clitoris 4. Vaginal canal 5. Hymen 6. Vestibule

Slide 103: The Internal organs OVARY  Firm almond shaped organ covered by the peritoneum  Two parts: cortex and medulla  CORTEX- follicles are found  Medulla- connective tissue

Slide 104: The internal organs Fallopian tubes Bilateral ducts extends laterally from the uterus 4 parts 1. Infundibulum- funnel shape, with fimbriae 2. Ampulla- widest part; usual site of FERTILIZATION 3. Isthmus- narrowest part 4. Interstitial or Intramural- embedded in the uterine wall FUNCTION: Transport of ovum

Slide 105: Fig. 20.2

Slide 107: The Uterus Pear-shaped organ with a cavity 3 main parts 1. Fundus- upper dome-shape part 2. Corpus or Body- broad part 3. Cervix- narrow lower part Isthmus- junction between the body and  the cervix POSITION: Anteverted and Anteflexed

Slide 109: The Uterus The uterine wall is made up of three layers 1. Epimetrium- superficial part surrounded by the perimetrium 2. Myometrium- thickest muscular part 3. Endometrium- inner layer FUNCTION: Fetal development in pregnancy

Slide 110: The endometrium 3 layers of the endometrium 1. Stratum Functionale  Stratum compactum  Stratum spongiosum 2. Stratum basale or germinativum

Slide 111: Uterine ligaments Broad ligament Round ligament Cardinal ligament Utero-sacral ligament

Slide 112: Fig. 19.8

Slide 113: Vaginal canal Connects the cervix to the vestibule Fibromuscular canal lined with mucus and covered with hymen The remnant of hymen is called CARUNCULAE MYRTIFORMIS Function: organ of copulation and passageway of baby

Slide 115: External genitalia 1. Vestibule- space between the labia minora 2. Pudendal cleft- space between the labia majora 3. Clitoris- erectile tissue, homologue of penis

Slide 116: External genitalia 4. Labia majora- thick fold of skin, homologue of scrotum 5. Labia Minora- thin fold of skin devoid of hairs 6. Mons pubis/veneris- elevated area above the labia

Slide 117: Mammary gland Modified sweat gland Consists of glandular and adipose tissue Estrogen for breast development Progesterone for lobular development Prolactin for milk production Oxytocin for milk “let down”

Slide 119: PHYSIOLOGY of female reproduction 1. Puberty 2. Menstruation 3. Menopause

Slide 120: Puberty Begins with the onset of the first menstruation= MENARCHE GnRH (from hypothalamus) Gonadotrophins (LH and FSH from the ant pit) levels are increased Tanner- states that the initial sign of puberty in girls is breast development

Slide 121: Fig. 19.11

Slide 122: Menstrual cycle Cyclical changes in the uterus controlled by hormones Duration: 24-35 days Changes in the 3 systems/organs: 1. Uterus uterine cycle 2. Ovary ovarian cycle 3. Hormone hormonal cycle

Slide 123: MENSTRUATION: Menstrual cycle/ female reproductive cycle- monthly discharge of blood from the uterus occurring form puberty to menopause wherein about 30-80 cc (60 cc ave.) of blood, epithelial cells and mucus are being discharged

Slide 124: Maturation of Oocytes: first formed in utero - 5 to7 million;  first 5 months in utero - 2 million immature  oocytes per ovary at birth - 2 million in BOTH ovaries  7 yrs of age only - 500,000/ovary  22y/o only - 300,000/ovary  Reproductive age only - 300–400 oocytes  Menopause - none 

Slide 126: Fig. 19.14

Slide 127: The uterine cycle Consists of 3 phases • Menstrual phase • Proliferative phase • Secretory phase

Slide 128: OVARIAN cycle Consists of three phases 1. Pre-ovulatory : follicular phase 2. Ovulatory phase 3. Post-ovulatory : Luteal phase

Slide 130: Uterine Cycle: Menstrual phase Day 1- day 5 First day of bleeding is the first day of cycle Stratum functionale (compactum and spongiosum) is shed Around 60 ml average!

Slide 131: Uterine cycle: proliferative Phase Day 5- day 14 Epithelial cells of functionale multiply and form glands Due to the influence of estrogen

Slide 132: Uterine cycle: Secretory phase Day 15- day 28 Endometrium becomes thicker and glands secrete nutrients Uterus is prepared for implantation Due to progesterone If no fertilization constriction vessels menstruation

Slide 133: OVARIAN cycle Consists of three phases 1. Pre-ovulatory : follicular phase 2. Ovulatory phase 3. Post-ovulatory : Luteal phase

Slide 134: Ovarian Cycle; preovulatory/follicular Variable in length: day 6- day 13 Dominant follicle matures and becomes graafian follicle with primary oocyte FSH increases initially then decreases because of estrogen increase

Slide 135: Ovarian cycle: Ovulatory phase Day 14 Rupture of the graafian follicle releasing the secondary oocyte Due to the LH surge MITTELSCHMERZ- pain during rupture of follicle

Slide 136: OVARIAN cycle: Post- ovulatory: luteal phase Day 15- day 28 MOST CONSTANT 14 days after ovulation Corpus luteum secretes Progesterone If no fertilization, corpus luteum will become corpus albicans then degenerate Decreased estrogen and progesterone

Slide 137: Hormonal cycle 1. Menstrual phase  Decreased Estrogen, decreased progesterone, decreased FSH and decreased LH 2. Proliferative/ Pre-ovulatory phase  Increased FSH and Estrogen in small amounts

Slide 138: Hormonal cycle 3. Ovulatory phase  Increased FSH, Increased LH (surge) Increased Estrogen 4. Post ovulatory/luteal Phase  Increased Estrogen, increased progesterone, decreased FSH and LH

Slide 140: MENOPAUSE Cessation of menstruation for at least one year occurring at the age of 45-52 Decreased estrogen and progesterone Increased FSH

Slide 141: End of reproductive






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