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Friday, October 5, 2007

Lymphatic System :: Anatomy & Physiology :: Review For Nursing Licensure Examination

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Review For Nursing Licensure Examination :: Anatomy & Physiology :: Lymphatic System Slide Transcript
Slide 1: The Lymphatic System Includes the lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs (tonsils, spleen and thymus) Primary Functions: 1. Maintains fluid homeostasis 2. Absorbs lipids from the GIT 3. Filters blood (spleen) 4. Contains lymphocytes participating in immunity

Slide 4: The Lymph Fluid similar to composition as plasma Without RBC and less proteins Special Lymph from the GIT is loaded with fats and is called CHYLE

Slide 6: Fig. 14.2

Slide 7: The Lymph vessels Carry fluid away from tissues into the venous circulation These are NOT present in the central nervous system, Bone marrow, epidermis and cartilage They resemble vein because they have valves

Slide 8: 3 mechanisms of edema formation 1. Decrease oncotic pressure cirrhosis and kwashiorkor 2. Increased hydrostatic pressure CHF and prolonged standing 3. Lymphatic obstruction or destruction filiariasis, lymph node dissection

Slide 9: Lymphatic duct 1. Right lymphatic duct- drains the right side of the head and the upper right side of the thorax and the right extremities 2. Thoracic duct- drains the rest of the body

Slide 11: The Lymphatic organs 1. Tonsils A. palatine B. pharyngeal C. lingual D. tubal

Slide 12: The lymphatic organs 2. Lymph nodes Small round structures of lymphoid tissue Major lymph nodes are the axillary, inguinal and cervical Filters lymph Activates the immune system Removes microorganisms from the blood

Slide 13: The lymphoid organs 3. The spleen Reddish, flat organ lying next to the 9th and 10th rib in the left upper quadrant Functions: Repository of old RBC Activates the immune system Storage of Blood Sequesters bacteria MOST COMMONLY INJURED in BLUNT abdominal trauma

Slide 14: The lymphoid organs 4. Thymus Bilobed organ in the superior mediastinum Lymphocytes from the bone marrow mature and grow as T-lymphocytes Positive selection= T-cells that react to foreign antigen are selected Negative selection= T-cells that do not react to the self-antigen are selected

Slide 16: IMMUNITY Innate or Non-specific Specific Immunity 1. Mechanical- skin, 1. Cellular mucus, saliva, urine Immunity- T-cell 2. Chemical- enzymes, system lysozymes 2. Humoral 3. Vascular Blood Immunity- B-cell cells- Neutrophils and system macrophages 4. Inflammation

Slide 17: Non-specific Immunity Inflammatory response Reaction of the vacularized living tissues to injury Classic signs: 1. Rubor- redness 2. Calor- heat 3. Tumor- swelling 4. Dolor- pain 5. Functio laesa- loss of function

Slide 18: Inflammation Initial reaction Vasoconstriction! VC VD VP (due to HISTAMINE) VD Redness and Heat VP Swelling Bradykinin, Prostaglandin, compression of tissues pain

Slide 19: Specific Immunity: T cell T-cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus 4 types of T-cells 1. Cytotoxic T cells- kill infected cells, cancer cells and transplanted cells 2. Helper T cells- help the humoral immunity 3. Suppressor T cells- suppress that actions of cytotoxic and Helper cells 4. Memory T cells- for recall and specificity

Slide 20: Specific Immunity: B cells B cells are produced and mature in the bone marrow B cells helped by Helper cells  turn into Plasma cells secrete ANTIBODIES

Slide 21: ANTIBODIES Are proteins that can combine with antigens and function for: 1. Opsonization 2. Neutralization 3. Activation of complement system

Slide 22: ANTIBODIES types Five classes 1. Ig M- priMary response, pentaMer 2. Ig G- secondary response, most abundant, can cross placenta 3. Ig A- secreted by the body (sIgA) 4. Ig D- receptor for B cells 5. Ig E- allergic and parasitic reactions

Slide 23: TYPES OF IMMUNITY 1. Natural Immunity Active natural Passive natural 2. Artificial Immunity Active artificial Passive artificial

Slide 24: Fig. 14.18

Slide 25: End of Immune System

Slide 26: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Slide 27: The Respiratory System Composed of the air conducting system and the respiratory unit (lungs) Major function is RESPIRATION Commonly divided into UPPER RESPIRATORY tract and LOWER RESPIRATORY tract

Slide 28: Ventilation and Respiration VENTILATION- movement of air from the atmosphere into the lungs and out of the lungs EXTERNAL RESPIRATION- exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood INTERNAL RESPIRATION- exchange of gases between the blood and the tissues

Slide 29: The Respiratory System Commonly divided into UPPER RESPIRATORY tract and LOWER RESPIRATORY tract

Slide 30: The UPPER Respiratory tract The nose, pharynx and larynx

Slide 31: The LOWER respiratory tract Composed of The trachea down to the Lungs

Slide 32: The NOSE Made up of nasal bones and cartilages The NASAL cavity is made up of bones, cartilages and turbinates or conchae The nostril is the external opening The choanae is the internal opening

Slide 33: Functions of the nose 1. Hairs or vibrissae filter large particles 2. Blood vessels warm the air 3. Mucus serves to humidify the air 4. Phonation

Slide 34: The Pharynx Musculo-membranous tube from behind the nasal cavity to the level of the cricoid cartilage (C6)

Slide 35: The Pharynx 3 component parts 1. Nasopharynx 2. Oropharynx 3. Laryngopharynx

Slide 36: The Larynx Upper expanded portion of the trachea Made up of cartilages 3 Unpaired- Cricoid, Thyroid and Epiglottis ( cUte) 6 Paired- Cuneiform, Corniculate and Arytenoid (pACC) Function: air passageway and phonation

Slide 38: The vocal cords 1. False vocal cords 2. True vocal cords 3. Glottis- the space between the true vocal cords and is the narrowest portion of the adult airway

Slide 39: Fig. 15.4

Slide 40: Lower airway: Trachea Called windpipe Made up of 15-20 C-shaped cartilage 10-11 inches Lined with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

Slide 41: Bronchus RIGHT Bronchus Left bronchus Wider Narrower Shorter Longer More vertical More horizontal

Slide 42: Bronchioles Primary bronchussecondary bronchus tertiary bronchus terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles belong to the respiratory unit

Slide 43: Respiratory unit Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs alveolus

Slide 44: The Pleura Surrounds the lungs and provide protection 1. Parietal pleura- in the chest wall 2. Visceral pleura- intimately attached to the lungs 3. Pleural space- in between the two

Slide 46: Diaphragm

Slide 47: Respiratory Physiology 1. Ventilation and gas exchange 2. Mechanics of breathing 3. Gas transport 4. Pulmonary volumes and capacities 5. Respiratory control

Slide 48: Ventilation Ventilation is the movement of air into the lungs Air (oxygen) moves by the process of diffusion from the higher concentration in the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries

Slide 49: Mechanics of breathing

Slide 50: Gas exchange Respiratory membrane is thin which facilitates gas exchange Rate of diffusion depends on the thickness of the membrane, surface area and partial pressure of gases

Slide 51: Gas transport 1. OXYGEN- majority is transported in the blood loosely bound to hemoglobin- oxyhemoglobin 2. CARBON DIOXIDE- majority is transported in the blood in the RBC as BICARBONATE

Slide 52: Fig. 15.8

Slide 53: LUNG VOLUMES 1. Tidal volume – TV 2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume- IRV 3. Expiratory Reserve Volume- ERV 4. Residual volume- RV

Slide 54: LUNG CAPACITIES Lung volume + another lung volume 1. Inspiratory Capacity- IC 2. Functional Residual Capacity- FRC 3. Vital capacity- VC 4. Total Lung capacity- TLC

Slide 57: NOT CLINICALLY measured 1. Residual volume 2. Functional residual volume 3. Total lung capacity

Slide 58: Control of Respiration: Central Respiratory center in the medulla Controls the rate and depth of respiration Increased CO2 is the most potent stimulus

Slide 59: Control of Respiration: Peripheral 1. Chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies Sensitive to changes in pH and O2 Decreased O2 increase respiration Decreased pH (acidosis) increase respiration 2. Herring-Breurer reflex Stretch receptors in the lungs limit the inspiration

Slide 60: ASSESSMENT Normal Breathing pattern: 12-21 respiratory rate Active inspiration with contraction of diaphragm Passive expiration with relaxation of diaphragm Steady rhythm and regular rate and size I:E ratio is 1:2

Slide 61: Abnormal breathing pattern 1. Cheyne-Stoke’s 2. Biot’s 3. Kussmaul’s 4. Agoral

Slide 62: Breathing rates 1. Eupnea- 12-21 2. Bradypnea- 11 and below 3. Tachypnea- 22 and above 4. Dyspnea- difficulty of breathing

Slide 63: Breathing Position 1. Platypnea- inability to breath in an upright position 2. Orthopnea- difficulty in breathing in any position except upright

Slide 64: Breath sounds: Normal 1. Bronchial or Tracheal- in the sternum 2. Bronchovesicular- in the interscapular area 3. Vesicular- lung periphery

Slide 65: Adventitious Breath sounds 1. Rales or crackles 2. Stridor 3. Wheeze 4. Rhonchi 5. Friction rub



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