Nursing Resource: Nursing Education Situation in the Philippines Slide Transcript
Slide 1: Export of Filipino Nurses: From Brain Drain to National Hemorrhage to NLE Leakage Health Alliance for Democracy (HEAD) 13 September 2006
Slide 2: Exporting Health Human Resource No. 1 Exporter of Nurses “An estimated 85% of employed Filipino nurses (more than 150,000) are working internationally.” (Aiken et al 2004) “70% of all Filipino nursing graduates are working overseas.” (Bach 2003) No. 2 Exporter of Doctors “68% of Filipino doctors work overseas, next to India.” (Mejia, WHO 1975) (NIH 2004)
Slide 3: Hemorrhage of Human Resources: Nurses 13,536 nurses left in 2001. 2000-2003: approx 50,000 nurses left. “Data casts doubt on the underreporting of the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA) that shows only 91 nurses left for the USA in 2000, 304 nurses in 2001, and 320 nurses in 2002.” (Tan et al 2004)
Slide 4: Top 5 Destinations of Filipino Nurses United States of America United Kingdom Saudi Arabia Ireland Singapore “The number of nurses that left in the last 4 years (50,000) far exceeds the production of nurses of only 20,000 in the same period.” (NIH 2004)
Slide 5: Deteriorating Quality of Nursing Education The number of nursing schools have increased 1970s: only 40 1990s: 170 June 2003: 251 April 2004: 370 June 2005: 441 June 2006: 470 By June 2006, almost 200% increase in nursing schools nationwide since 2003 (NIH 2004)
Slide 6: Deteriorating Quality of Nursing Education Decreasing proportion of nursing graduates who pass the national nursing licensure examinations 1970s and 80s: 80%-90% 1991: below 61% 2001-2003: 44%-48% 2004: 55.9% 2005: 49.7% 2006: 42.42% (NIH 2004, PRC 2005)
Slide 7: Deteriorating Quality of Nursing Education In 2001 116 nursing schools: passing rate of <50% 124 nursing schools: passing rate of >50% In 2002, 150 nursing schools had a passing rate <50%, which was already 63% of the 237 nursing schools then. In the last 3 NLE 2005, at least 20 schools consistently a <30% passing rate. (NIH 2004)
Slide 8: Hemorrhage of Human Resources: Other Professionals At least 37 Philippine nursing schools offer abbreviated 2- year courses for doctors to become nurses. More than 60% of nursing schools are geared mainly for “second coursers” (non-health professionals who want to take up nursing, e.g. engineers, accountants, teachers, soldiers). (HSA 2005, PNA 2005)
Slide 9: Hemorrhage of Human Resources: Other Professionals Initial HEAD estimates: around 30% of nursing students are “second-coursers” at least 80% of those taking up nursing are planning to work abroad between 75%-90% of faculty members are planning to work abroad (HSA 2005, PNA 2005)
Slide 10: Hemorrhage of Human Resources: Other Professionals Biggest review centers: INRESS – P10,000 for 6 weeks Gapuz – P13,400 for 3 weeks Pentagon – P14,500 from Sept to Dec Most nursing colleges also have compulsory “in-house” reviews that are paid for by the students (separate from tuition and other expenses) Students/graduates spend around P40,000+ just for review
Slide 11: Exploited Health Human Resources Health workers and professionals are ► overworked and underpaid.
Slide 12: Exploited Health Human Resources Doctor to patient ratio (population) ► Cuba 1:225 USA 1:450 Philippines 1:10,000-26,000 WHO (Ideal) 1:600 Nurses to patient ratio ► PGH 1:15-26 per shift Davao del Sur 1:44-45 per shift Ideal 1:4 per shift Philippines 1:16,000 (population) (AHW 2004, HealthWrights 2004)
Slide 13: The Unhealthy Philippine Health Care System “A health care system that cannot maintain its own health human resource is not healthy at all.”
Slide 14: The Nursing Exam Leakage The Nursing Licensure Examination (NLE) Given by the PRC twice a year Exam questions are prepared by members of the Board of Nursing Has 5 parts: Test I (Community Nursing), Test II (Maternal and Child), Test III (Medical-Surgical Nursing), Test IV (Fundamentals), Test V (Psychiatric Nursing)
Slide 15: The Nursing Exam Leakage Basic chronology of the NLE leak A few days before the June 2006 NLE, INRESS held an “final coaching” at one of the cinemas in SM North EDSA Shortly after the NLE, the leakage was exposed in Baguio City. PRC-CAR immediately informed PRC national office.
Slide 16: The Nursing Exam Leakage Basic chronology of the NLE leak PRC initially said it would investigate before releasing the list of those who passed. Mass resignation of the Technical Committee on Nursing Education (TCNE) on July 7, citing “that CHED has instead (of implementing past memos) buckled down to pressure from poor performing schools, politicians and Malacañang, sacrificing quality for mediocrity and business interest.”
Slide 17: The Nursing Exam Leakage Basic chronology of the NLE leak But even without an investigation, the PRC released the list of those who passed and stated there was no leak involved. PNA President George Cordero also lobbied the PNA chapter in Baguio to keep the matter under wraps as it might jeopardize the country’s request to be made an NCLEX center.
Slide 18: The Nursing Exam Leakage Basic chronology of the NLE leak Nursing groups were formed to pressure the PRC. The UST-led group called for a nullification of the entire NLE and a re-take. The nursing community became embroiled and divided on the re-take debate. The PRC allowed the oath-taking of those who passed even after promising the ADPCN that it will defer such action.
Slide 19: The Nursing Exam Leakage Basic chronology of the NLE leak The UST-led group filed a TRO against the PRC for the oath-taking. The processing of papers also stopped. The Senate and the HOR Committees on Health began conducting their respective investigations, but the gov’t agencies involved did not attend the hearings. Witness testimonies already point to the involvement of key leaders/members of the PNA and BON.
Slide 20: The Nursing Exam Leakage Major groups implicated Dr. George Cordero: owner of INRESS and Philippine Colleges of Health Sciences (PCHS); President of the Philippine Nurses Association (PNA) BON members Anesia B. Dionisio and Virginia D. Madeja Gapuz and Pentagon Review centers PRC Chair Leonor Tripon-Rosero
Slide 21: The Nursing Exam Leakage Major government agencies involved Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) Board of Nursing (BON) Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Dante Ang (Commission on Overseas Filipino and Presidential Task Force on the National Licensure Exam/EO 550) National Bureau of Investigation
Slide 22: The Nursing Exam Leakage Major groups of stakeholders Association of Deans of Philippine Colleges of Nursing (President Carmelita Divinagracia, Dean UERM CN) PNA and PNA-CAR Concerned Nurses… (UST, FEU) ANSWER (broad inter-school alliance) BSN (Bukluran ng mga Samahang Nurses) Health Alliance for Democracy (HEAD)
Slide 23: The Nursing Exam Leakage Positions regarding the issue PRC: “No Leakage” No Re-take Voluntary re-take for free Bonus 2% Dante Ang/Arroyo admin: Compulsory Re-take Compulsory re-take of Tests III and V PNA: Re-take all No re-take UST, UE, UP: Compulsory re-take of Tests III, V CHED: “Wala kaming kinalaman dyan!”
Slide 24: The Nursing Exam Leakage HEAD analysis Leakage is only a symptom of a long- • standing deterioration of the nursing education Like other exams given by the PRC, the • NLE has been fraught with leakages that have exemplified the collusion between gov’t officials and big business
Slide 25: The Nursing Exam Leakage HEAD analysis Gov’t agencies (PRC, CHED, BON) have • eroded the quality of nursing education and the integrity of the nursing profession The actions of gov’t agencies are divisive • and meant to distract stakeholders from the main issue
Slide 26: The Nursing Exam Leakage HEAD analysis The commercialization of nursing • education has worsened the quality of nursing education This commercialization is rooted in the • Labor Export Policy of the Arroyo regime Rather than seek solutions, the Arroyo • gov’t seeks to centralize everything (e.g. regulate review centers under gov’t control) to increase its revenues
Slide 27: Health Under the Arroyo Regime Filipino nurses have become a commodity: subject to TRADE and PROFITS The national government has ABANDONED its responsibility to ensure the HEALTH of their PEOPLE
Slide 28: WHAT WE WANT HEAD proposals: IMMEDIATE Conduct a speedy, thorough, impartial, and • independent investigation of the leakage Identify and prosecute the guilty • Completely revamp the PRC, BON, and CHED • Allow those who have passed to seek jobs • without discrimination
Slide 29: WHAT WE WANT HEAD proposals: LONG-TERM Review and uphold the recommendations set by • the TCNE. Set the standards for nursing schools to operate and ensure compliance Ensure the quality of education through a • thorough review of the curricula and quality of nursing faculty Ensure the integrity of the conduct of • examinations and other tests pertinent to the competence of Filipino nurses
Slide 30: WHAT WE WANT HEAD calls: Unite and Uphold the Integrity of the Nursing • Profession! Conduct a Speedy, Thorough, and Independent • Investigation! Identify and Prosecute the Guilty! Stop the Commercialization of Nursing • Education! Stop the Arroyo Administration’s Labor Export • Policy!
Slide 31: HEAL. STRUGGLE. LIBERATE. Health Alliance for Democracy (HEAD)
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