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Wednesday, October 10, 2007

Nursing Reference: Blood Physiology 1

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Nursing Reference: Blood Physiology 1 Slide Transcript
Slide 1: Blood Physiology Rodolfo T. Rafael, M.D.,CFP http://clinical-updates.blogspot.com rtrafaelmd@gmail.com +639212147558 August 8, 2007 1

Slide 2: Blood Physiology General Consideration • Plasma • Cellular Elements of the Blood • August 8, 2007 2

Slide 3: August 8, 2007 3

Slide 4: General Consideration unicellular organisms • • nutrition and excretion • volume of the extracellular environment greatly exceeds that of the cell multicellular organisms • • specialized tissue August 8, 2007 4

Slide 5: Unicellular Organism August 8, 2007 5

Slide 6: Functions of the Blood homeostasis • respiratory function • nutritive function • excretory function • transport internal secretions • helps maintain acid-base balance • maintenance of water and electrolyte imbalance and in • regulation of colloid and total osmotic pressure immunity to disease and protect the body against • bacteria regulation of the body temperature • August 8, 2007 6

Slide 7: Composition of the Blood Plasma • Formed Elements • August 8, 2007 7

Slide 8: Plasma Water • Plasma proteins • Blood sugar • Lipids • Inorganic salts • Special Plasma • Substances Gases • August 8, 2007 8

Slide 9: Water 91-92% • August 8, 2007 9

Slide 10: Plasma Proteins liver • albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin • Function • • maintenance of water balance • Imparts a viscosity to the blood • sources of antibodies • blood clotting • maintain acid-base balance August 8, 2007 10

Slide 11: Blood Sugar glucose • source of energy • August 8, 2007 11

Slide 12: Lipids neutral fats, cholesterol, and • phospholipids supply energy or stored as fat • August 8, 2007 12

Slide 13: Inorganic Salts Calcium ions and the Sodium ions • Salt ions (chlorides, bicarbonates, • phosphates, sulfates) Electrolytes (sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium) Calcium ions and phosphates • Iodides and Iron • August 8, 2007 13

Slide 14: Special Plasma Substances hormones • enzymes • clotting elements • antibodies • urea • uric acid • creatinine • August 8, 2007 14

Slide 15: Gases oxygen • carbon dioxide • nitrogen • August 8, 2007 15

Slide 16: Formed Elements Red Cell or Erythrocytes • WBC or Leucocytes • Blood Platelets or Thombocytes • August 8, 2007 16

Slide 17: Red Blood Cell Description • Normal Values • Red Cell Production • Red Blood Cell Destruction • Osmotic Fragility • Function of Erythrocytes • August 8, 2007 17

Slide 18: Description biconcave discs, 2µm thick 8μm in • diameter • deformable (PGE1, PGE2) • carry hemoglobin in circulation • 1 liter- 3ml of dissolved O2 • hemoglobin can transport 70 times this amount • 20 ml of O2 = 100ml of blood • non- nucleated August 8, 2007 18

Slide 19: August 8, 2007 19

Slide 20: August 8, 2007 20

Slide 21: August 8, 2007 21

Slide 22: Normal Values Men 5-6 x 1012/L of blood • Women 4-5 x 1012/L of blood • Infants 6.5 x 1012/L of blood • Hemoglobin • • 120- 150g/L (female) • 140-170g/L (male) Erythrocyte (Hct) • • 0.38- 0.48 (female) • 0.40- 0.50 (male) August 8, 2007 22

Slide 23: Red Cell Production yolk sac of the embryo • • few weeks liver, spleen, lymph node • • middle trimester bone marrow of skull, vertebrae, ribs, • sternum • later part of pregnancy August 8, 2007 23

Slide 24: Erythropoiesis Hemocytoblast basophil erythroblast polychromatophil erythroblast normoblast reticulocyte erythrocytes August 8, 2007 24

Slide 25: FeedBack Control inhibited • • supernormal level stimulated • • anemia • hypoxemia controlled • • erythropoetin August 8, 2007 25

Slide 26: Hypoxemia kidney liver REF Globulin Erythropoietin Stem cells Erythrocytes August 8, 2007 26

Slide 27: Red Blood Cell Destruction Life span • • 120 days • Destruction • 2.5M/sec • 1% of red cells/day • Spleen • Mechanical and Chemical stresses • friction August 8, 2007 27

Slide 28: Osmotic Fragility hypertonic solution • hypotonic solution • isotonic solution • Fragility Index • • 0.45-0.38% NaCL • 0.36- 0.30% NaCl August 8, 2007 28

Slide 29: Primary Function of Erythrocytes transport hemoglobin • • carries oxygen • carbon dioxide August 8, 2007 29

Slide 30: White Blood Cell Description • Classes of Leucocytes • Normal Values • Origin • Life span • Function of Leucocytes • August 8, 2007 30

Slide 31: Description nucleated • August 8, 2007 31

Slide 32: August 8, 2007 32

Slide 33: Classes of Leucocytes non-granular • • lymphocytes • monocytes granular • • neutrophils • basophils • eosinophils August 8, 2007 33

Slide 34: Normal Values WBC 5-10 x 109/L of blood • basophils 0.005 • eosinophils 0.02-0.04 • stabs 0.02 – 0.04 • segmenters 0.45- 0.65 • lymphocytes 0.20- 0.35 • monocytes 0.02- 0.06 • August 8, 2007 34

Slide 35: Origin granular • • red bone marrow non- granular • • lymphatic tissue (lymph nodes, tonsils, payer’s patches, spleen and thymus) August 8, 2007 35

Slide 36: Life span Granulocytes • • two weeks Large lymphocytes • • 2-3 days small ones • • 100-200 days August 8, 2007 36

Slide 37: Function of Leucocytes Neutrophils • • phagocytic Lymphocytes • • non phagocytes • immune reactions • antibodies • tissue transplant Monocytes • • phagocytic • combating chronic infection August 8, 2007 37

Slide 38: Monocytes arrive at the site of infection few organelles form these organelles small granules rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes synthesize enzymes used to digest material ingested by monocytes August 8, 2007 38

Slide 39: Eosinophils • phagocytic • allergic reaction Antibody react with antigen inactivate it eosinophil gets rid of inactivated complex August 8, 2007 39

Slide 40: Basophils • heparin • phagocytes August 8, 2007 40

Slide 41: Blood Platelets Description • Normal Values • Origin • Life span • Functions • August 8, 2007 41

Slide 42: Description small • colorless bodies • 2-4 microns in diameter • August 8, 2007 42

Slide 43: Normal Values 200-400 x 109/L • thrombocytopenia • August 8, 2007 43

Slide 44: Origin megakaryocytes • August 8, 2007 44

Slide 45: August 8, 2007 45

Slide 46: Life Span 4-5 days • August 8, 2007 46

Slide 47: Function white thrombus or a platelet plug • thromboplastin essential for • blood coagulation Serotonin • Helps in clot retraction • August 8, 2007 47

Slide 48: Platelet Aggregation occurs before clotting • agglutination on platelets depend on • several factors: • rate of flow • size of the blood vessel • character of the vessel wall • presence of ADP August 8, 2007 48

Slide 49: A + P ADP Acts as local hormone Calcium Cause rapid platelet aggregation Platelet Adhere August 8, 2007 49

Slide 50: August 8, 2007 50

Slide 51: Thank You! For Not Listening August 8, 2007 51





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