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Monday, October 29, 2007

Gastrointestinal System :: Medical Surgical Nursing :: Review For Nursing Licensure Examination

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Gastrointestinal System :: Medical Surgical Nursing :: Review For Nursing Licensure Examination Slide Transcript
Slide 1: Medical Surgical Nursing The GASTRO-INTESTINAL System Nurse Licensure Examination Review

Slide 2: The Gastro-Intestinal System Review of the GIT Anatomy and Physiology  Review of Common laboratory procedures  Review of Common Symptoms and their  nursing interventions Review of common disorders of the:  Esophagus -gallbladder   Stomach -exocrine pancreas  Small intestine -liver  Large Intestine

Slide 4: The GIT System: Anatomy and Physiology The GIT is composed of two general parts  The main GIT starts from the mouth EsophagusStomachSILI The accessory organs are the  Salivary glands   Liver  Gallbladder  Pancreas

Slide 5: The GIT ANATOMY The Mouth  Contains the lips, cheeks, palate, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, masticatory/facial muscles and bones  Anteriorly bounded by the lips  Posteriorly bounded by the oropharynx

Slide 6: The GIT Physiology The Mouth  Important for the mechanical digestion of food  The saliva contains SALIVARY AMYLASE or PTYALIN that starts the INITIAL digestion of carbohydrates

Slide 7: The GIT ANATOMY The Esophagus  A hollow collapsible tube  Length- 10 inches  Made up of stratified squamos epithelium

Slide 8: The GIT ANATOMY The Esophagus  The upper third contains skeletal muscles  The middle third contains mixed skeletal and smooth muscles  The lower third contains smooth muscles and the esophago-gastric/ cardiac sphincter is found here

Slide 9: The GIT PHYSIOLOGY The Esophagus  Functions to carry or propel foods from the oropharynx to the stomach  Swallowing or deglutition is composed of three phases:

Slide 10: The GIT ANATOMY The stomach  J-shaped organ in the epigastrium  Contains four parts- the fundus, the cardia, the body and the pylorus  The cardiac sphincter prevents the reflux of the contents into the esophagus  The pyloric sphincter regulates the rate of gastric emptying into the duodenum  Capacity is 1,500 ml!

Slide 11: The GIT PHYSIOLOGY The functions of the stomach are  generally to digest the food (proteins) and to propel the digested materials into the SI for final digestion  The Glands and cells in the stomach secrete digestive enzymes:

Slide 12: The GIT PHYSIOLOGY Stomach:  1. Parietal cells- HCl acid and Intrinsic  factor 2. Chief cells- pepsin digestion of  PROTEINS! 3. Antral G-cells- gastrin  4. Argentaffin cells- serotonin  5. Mucus neck cells- mucus 

Slide 13: The GIT ANATOMY The Small intestine  Grossly divided into the Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum  The duodenum contains the two openings for the bile and pancreatic ducts  The ileum is the longest part (about 12 feet)

Slide 14: The GIT physiology The intestinal glands secrete digestive  enzymes that finalize the digestion of all foodstuff Enzymes for carbohydrates disaccharidases Enzymes for proteins dipeptidases and  aminopeptidases Enzyme for lipids intestinal lipase 

Slide 15: The GIT ANATOMY The Large intestine  Approximately 5 feet long, with parts:  1. The cecum widest diameter, prone to rupture  2. The appendix  3. The ascending colon  4. The transverse colon  5. The descending colon  6. The sigmoid most mobile, prone to twisting  7. The rectum

Slide 16: The GIT Physiology Absorbs water  Eliminates wastes  Bacteria in the colon synthesize Vitamin K  Appendix participates in the immune system 

Slide 17: The GIT Physiology SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIC  Generally INHIBITORY!  Generally EXCITATORY!  Decreased gastric  Increased gastric secretions secretions  Decreased GIT motility  Increased gastric motility But: Increased sphincteric But: Decreased sphincteric   tone and constriction of tone and dilation of blood blood vessels vessels

Slide 18: The GIT ANATOMY The Liver  The largest internal organ  Located in the right upper quadrant  Contains two lobes- the right and the left  The hepatic ducts join together with the cystic duct to become the common bile duct

Slide 19: The GIT Physiology: LIVER Functions to store excess glucose, fats and  amino acids Also stores the fat soluble vitamins- A, D  and the water soluble- Vitamin B12 Produces the BILE for normal fat digestion  The Von Kupffer cells remove bacteria in the  portal blood Detoxifies ammonia into urea 

Slide 20: The GIT anatomy The gallbladder  Located below the liver  The cystic duct joins the hepatic duct to become the bile duct  The common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct in the sphincter of Oddi in the first part of the duodenum

Slide 21: The GIT Physiology Stores and concentrates bile  Contracts during the digestion of fats to  deliver the bile Cholecystokinin is released by the duodenal  cells, causing the contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi

Slide 22: The GIT anatomy The pancreas  A retroperitoneal gland  Functions as an endocrine and exocrine gland  The pancreatic duct (major) joins the common bile duct in the sphincter of Oddi

Slide 23: The GIT Physiology The exocrine function of the pancreas is the  secretion of digestive enzymes for carbohydrates, fats and proteins Pancreatic amylase carbohydrates  Pancreatic lipase (steapsin) fats  Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Peptidases proteins Bicarbonate to neutralize the acidic  chyme. Stimulated by SECRETIN!

Slide 24: Gastrointestinal Assessment Laboratory Procedures

Slide 25: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES FECALYSIS  Examination of stool consistency, color and the presence of occult blood.  Special tests for fat, nitrogen, parasites, ova, pathogens and others

Slide 26: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES FECALYSIS: Occult Blood Testing  Instruct the patient to adhere to a 3-day meatless diet  No intake of NSAIDS, aspirin and anti-coagulant  Screening test for colonic cancer

Slide 27: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Upper GIT study: barium swallow  Examines the upper GI tract  Barium sulfate is usually used as contrast

Slide 28: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Upper GIT study: barium swallow  Pre-test: NPO post-midnight  Post-test: Laxative is ordered, increase pt fluid intake, instruct that stools will turn white, monitor for obstruction

Slide 31: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GIT study: barium enema  Examines the lower GI tract  Pre-test: Clear liquid diet and laxatives, NPO post-midnight, cleansing enema prior to the test

Slide 32: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GIT study: barium enema  Post-test: Laxative is ordered, increase patient fluid intake, instruct that stools will turn white, monitor for obstruction

Slide 34: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Gastric analysis  Aspiration of gastric juice to measure pH, appearance, volume and contents  Pre-test: NPO 8 hours, avoidance of stimulants, drugs and smoking  Post-test: resume normal activities

Slide 35: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)  Visualization of the upper GIT by endoscope  Pre-test: ensure consent, NPO 8 hours, pre-medications like atropine and anxiolytics

Slide 37: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy  Intra-test: position : LEFT lateral to facilitate salivary drainage and easy access

Slide 38: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)  Post-test: NPO until gag reflex returns, place patient in SIMS position until he awakens, monitor for complications, saline gargles for mild oral discomfort

Slide 39: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GI- scopy  Use of endoscope to visualize the anus, rectum, sigmoid and colon  Pre-test: consent, NPO 8 hours, cleansing enema until return is clear

Slide 41: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GI- scopy  Intra-test: position is LEFT lateral, right leg is bent and placed anteriorly  Post-test: bed rest, monitor for complications like bleeding and perforation

Slide 43: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Cholecystography  Examination of the gallbladder to detect stones, its ability to concentrate, store and release the bile  Pre-test: ensure consent, ask allergies to iodine, seafood and dyes; contrast medium is administered the night prior, NPO after contrast administration

Slide 44: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Cholecystography Post-test: Advise that dysuria is common as the dye is excreted in the urine, resume normal activities

Slide 45: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Paracentesis Removal of peritoneal fluid for analysis

Slide 46: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Paracentesis  Pre-test: ensure consent, instruct to VOID and empty bladder, measure abdominal girth

Slide 47: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Paracentesis Intra-test: Upright on the edge of the bed, back supported and feet resting on a foot stool

Slide 48: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Liver biopsy  Pretest  Consent  NPO  Check for the bleeding parameters

Slide 49: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Liver biopsy  Intratest  Position: Semi fowler’s LEFT lateral to expose right side of abdomen

Slide 50: COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Liver biopsy  Post-test: position on RIGHT lateral with pillow underneath, monitor VS and complications like bleeding, perforation. Instruct to avoid lifting objects for 1 week

Slide 51: The NURSING PROCESS in GIT Disorders Assessment  Health history Nursing History  PE  Laboratory procedures

Slide 52: The ABDOMINAL examination The sequence to follow is:  Inspection  Auscultation  Percussion  Palpation

Slide 54: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT CONSTIPATION DIARRHEA DUMPING SYNDROME

Slide 55: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT CONSTIPATION  An abnormal infrequency and irregularity of defecation  Multiple causations

Slide 56: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT CONSTIPATION: Pathophysiology  Interference with three functions of the colon  1. Mucosal transport  2. Myoelectric activity  3. Process of defecation

Slide 57: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Assist physician in treating the underlying cause of constipation  2. Encourage to eat HIGH fiber diet to increase the bulk  3. Increase fluid intake  4. Administer prescribed laxatives, stool softeners  5. Assist in relieving stress

Slide 58: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Diarrhea  Abnormal fluidity of the stool Multiple causes   Gastrointestinal Diseases  Hyperthyroidism  Food poisoning

Slide 59: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Diarrhea Nursing Interventions 1. Increase fluid intake- ORESOL is the most important treatment! 2. Determine and manage the cause 3. Anti-diarrheal drugs

Slide 60: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME  A condition of rapid emptying of the gastric contents into the small intestine usually after a gastric surgery  Symptoms occur 30 minutes after eating

Slide 61: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  Foods high in CHO and electrolytes must be diluted in the jejunum before absorption takes place.

Slide 62: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The rapid influx of stomach contents will cause distention of the jejunum early symptoms

Slide 63: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The hypertonic food bolus will draw fluid from the blood vessels to dilute the high concentrations of CHO and electrolytes in the food bolus

Slide 64: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Later, there is increased blood glucose stimulating the increased secretion of insulin

Slide 65: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Then, blood glucose will fall causing reactive hypoglycemia

Slide 66: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: early symptoms  1. Nausea and Vomiting  2. Abdominal fullness  3. Abdominal cramping  4. Palpitation  5. Diaphoresis

Slide 67: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: LATE symptoms:  6. Drowsiness  7. Weakness and Dizziness  8. Hypoglycemia

Slide 68: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Advise patient to eat LOW- carbohydrate HIGH-fat and HIGH- protein diet  2. Instruct to eat SMALL frequent meals, include MORE dry items.  3. Instruct to AVOID consuming FLUIDS with meals

Slide 69: COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS  4. Instruct to LIE DOWN after meals  5. Administer anti-spasmodic medications to delay gastric emptying

Slide 70: GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PERNICIOUS ANEMIA  Results from Deficiency of vitamin B12 due to autoimmune destruction of the parietal cells, lack of INTRINSIC FACTOR or total removal of the stomach

Slide 71: GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PERNICIOUS ANEMIA ASSESSMENT  Severe pallor  Fatigue  Weight loss  SMOOTH BEEFY-RED TONGUE  Mild jaundice  Paresthesia of extremities  Balance disturbance

Slide 72: GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT NURSING INTERVENTION for Pernicious Anemia  Lifetime injection of Vitamin B 12 weekly initially, then MONTHLY

Slide 73: Conditions of the GIT UPPER GI system

Slide 74: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS HIATAL HERNIA  Protrusion of the esophagus into the diaphragm thru an opening  Two types- Sliding hiatal hernia ( most common) and Axial hiatal hernia

Slide 75: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS ASSESSMENT Findings in Hiatal hernia  1. Heartburn  2. Regurgitation  3. Dysphagia  4. 50%- without symptoms

Slide 76: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS DIAGNOSTIC TEST  Barium swallow and fluoroscopy

Slide 77: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Provide small frequent feedings  2. AVOID supine position for 1 hour after eating  3. Elevate the head of the bed on 8- inch block  4. Provide pre-op and post-op care

Slide 78: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS Esophageal Varices  Dilation and tortuosity of the submucosal veins in the distal esophagus  ETIOLOGY: commonly caused by PORTAL hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis  This is an Emergency condition!

Slide 79: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS ASSESSMENT findings for EV  1. Hematemesis  2. Melena  3. Ascites  4. jaundice  5. hepatomegaly/splenomegaly

Slide 80: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS ASSESSMENT findings for EV  Signs of Shock- tachycardia, hypotension, tachypnea, cold clammy skin, narrowed pulse pressure

Slide 81: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE Esophagoscopy

Slide 82: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV  1. Monitor VS strictly. Note for signs of shock  2. Monitor for LOC  3. Maintain NPO

Slide 83: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV  4. Monitor blood studies  5. Administer O2  6. prepare for blood transfusion

Slide 84: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS INTERVENTIONS FOR EV  7. prepare to administer Vasopressin and Nitroglycerin  8. Assist in NGT and Sengstaken- Blakemore tube insertion for balloon tamponade

Slide 85: CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV  9. Prepare to assist in surgical management:  Endoscopic sclerotherapy  Variceal ligation  Shunt procedures

Slide 86: Conditions of the Stomach Gastro-esophageal reflux  Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus  Usually due to incompetent lower esophageal sphincter , pyloric stenosis or motility disorder  Symptoms may mimic ANGINA or MI

Slide 87: Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT ( for GERD)  Heartburn  Dyspepsia  Regurgitation  Epigastric pain  Difficulty swallowing  Ptyalism

Slide 88: Conditions of the Stomach Diagnostic test  Endoscopy or barium swallow  Gastric ambulatory pH analysis  Note for the pH of the esophagus, usually done for 24 hours  The pH probe is located 5 inches above the lower esophageal sphincter  The machine registers the different pH of the refluxed material into the esophagus

Slide 89: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Instruct the patient to AVOID stimulus that increases stomach pressure and decreases GES pressure  2. Instruct to avoid spices, coffee, tobacco and carbonated drinks  3. Instruct to eat LOW-FAT, HIGH- FIBER diet

Slide 90: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS  4. Avoid foods and drinks TWO hours before bedtime  5. Elevate the head of the bed with an approximately 8-inch block

Slide 91: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS  6. Administer prescribed H2- blockers, PPI and prokinetic meds like cisapride, metochlopromide  7. Advise proper weight reduction

Slide 92: Conditions of the Stomach GASTRITIS  Inflammation of the gastric mucosa  May be Acute or Chronic  Etiology: Acute- bacteria, irritating foods, NSAIDS, alcohol, bile and radiation  Etiology: Chronic- Ulceration, bacteria, Autoimmune disease, diet, alcohol, smoking

Slide 93: Conditions of the Stomach PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF Gastritis  Insults cause gastric mucosal damage inflammation, hyperemia and edema superficial erosions  decreased gastric secretions, ulcerations and bleeding

Slide 94: Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT (Chronic) (Acute)  Pyrosis  Dyspepsia  Singultus  Headache  Sour taste in the  Anorexia mouth  Dyspepsia  Nausea/Vomiting  N/V/anorexia  Pernicious anemia

Slide 95: Conditions of the Stomach DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE  EGD- to visualize the gastric mucosa for inflammation  Low levels of HCl  Biopsy to establish correct diagnosis whether acute or chronic

Slide 96: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Give BLAND diet  2. Monitor for signs of complications like bleeding, obstruction and pernicious anemia  3. Instruct to avoid spicy foods, irritating foods, alcohol and caffeine

Slide 97: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS  4. Administer prescribed medications- H2 blockers, antibiotics, mucosal protectants  5. Inform the need for Vitamin B12 injection if deficiency is present

Slide 98: Conditions of the Stomach PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE  An ulceration of the gastric and duodenal lining  May be referred as to location as Gastric ulcer in the stomach, or Duodenal ulcer in the duodenum  Most common Peptic ulceration: anterior part of the upper duodenum

Slide 99: Conditions of the Stomach PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of PUD  Disturbance in acid secretion and mucosal protection  Increased acidity or decreased mucosal resistance erosion and ulceration

Slide 100: Conditions of the Stomach GASTRIC ULCER Ulceration of the gastric mucosa, submucosa and rarely the muscularis

Slide 101: Conditions of the Stomach GASTRIC ULCER  Risk factors: Stress, smoking, NSAIDS abuse, Alcohol, Helicobacter pylori infection, type A personality and History of gastritis  Incidence is high in older adults  Acid secretion is NORMAL

Slide 102: Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT (Gastric Ulcer)  Epigastric pain  Characteristic: Gnawing, sharp pain in the mid-epigastrium 1-2 hours AFTER eating, often NOT RELIEVED by food intake, sometimes AGGRAVATING the pain!

Slide 103: Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT (Gastric Ulcer)  Nausea  Vomiting is more common  Hematemesis  Weight loss

Slide 104: Conditions of the Stomach DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES  1. EGD to visualize the ulceration  2. Urea breath test for H. pylori infection  3. Biopsy- to rule out gastric cancer

Slide 105: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Give BLAND diet, small frequent meals during the active phase of the disease  2. Administer prescribed medications- H2 blockers, PPI, mucosal barrier protectants and antacids

Slide 106: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS  3. Monitor for complications of bleeding, perforation and intractable pain  4. provide teaching about stress reduction and relaxation techniques

Slide 107: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING  1. Maintain on NPO  2. Administer IVF and medications  3. Monitor hydration status, hematocrit and hemoglobin

Slide 108: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING  4. Assist with SALINE lavage  5. Insert NGT for decompression and lavage

Slide 109: Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING  6. Prepare to administer blood transfusion  7. Prepare to give VASOPRESSIN to induce vasoconstriction to reduce bleeding  8. Prepare patient for SURGERY if warranted

Slide 110: Conditions of the Stomach SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR PUD  Total gastrectomy, vagotomy, gastric resection, Billroth I and II, pyloroplasty

Slide 112: Conditions of the Stomach SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR PUD Post-operative Nursing management  1. Monitor VS  2. Post-op position: FOWLER’S  3. NPO until peristalsis returns  4. Monitor for bowel sounds  5. Monitor for complications of surgery

Slide 113: Conditions of the Stomach Post-operative Nursing management  6. Monitor I and O, IVF  7. Maintain NGT  8. Diet progress: clear liquid full liquid six bland meals  9. Manage DUMPING SYNDROME

Slide 114: Condition of the Duodenum DUODENAL ULCER Ulceration of duodenal mucosa and submucosa Usually due to increased gastric acidity

Slide 115: Condition of the Duodenum DUODENAL ULCER ASSESSMENT  PAIN characteristic: Burning pain in the mid- epigastrium 2-4 HOURS after eating or during the night, RELIEVED by food intake

Slide 117: Condition of the Duodenum DIAGNOSTIC TESTS EGD and Biopsy

Slide 120: Condition of the Duodenum NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Same as for gastric ulceration  2. Patient teaching-avoid alcohol, smoking, caffeine and carbonated drinks Take NSAIDS with meals Adhere to medication regimen

Slide 121: Ulcers GASTRIC DUODENAL Older Younger Normal Acidity INCREASED acidity Pain early after eating Pain late after eating (2-4 hours) WORSENS by food, RELIEVES by food RELIEVED by VOMITING Bleeding, weight loss and Less likely bleeding and vomiting vomiting (+) cancer (-) cancer

Slide 122: Conditions of the Lower Tract Small and Large Intestine

Slide 123: CONDITIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE CROHN’S DISEASE  Also called Regional Enteritis  An inflammatory disease of the GIT affecting usually the small intestine

Slide 124: CONDITIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE CROHN’S DISEASE  ETIOLOGY: unknown  The terminal ileum thickens, with scarring, ulcerations, abscess formation and narrowing of the lumen

Slide 125: CONDITIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for CD  1. Fever  2. Abdominal distention  3. Diarrhea  4. Colicky abdominal pain  5. Anorexia/N/V  6. Weight loss  7. Anemia

Slide 126: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ULCERATIVE COLITIS  Ulcerative and inflammatory condition of the GIT usually affecting the large intestine  The colon becomes edematous and develops bleeding ulcerations  Scarring develops overtime with impaired water absorption and loss of elasticity

Slide 127: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for UC  1. Anorexia  2. Weight loss  3. Fever  4. SEVERE diarrhea with Rectal bleeding  5. Anemia  6. Dehydration  7. Abdominal pain and cramping

Slide 128: NURSING INTERVENTIONS for CD and UC 1. Maintain NPO during the active phase  2. Monitor for complications like severe  bleeding, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance 3. Monitor bowel sounds, stool and blood  studies 4. Restrict activities  5. Administer IVF, electrolytes and TPN if  prescribed

Slide 129: NURSING INTERVENTIONS for CD and UC 6. Instruct the patient to AVOID gas-forming  foods, MILK products and foods such as whole grains, nuts, RAW fruits and vegetables especially SPINACH, pepper, alcohol and caffeine 7. Diet progression- clear liquid LOW residue,  high protein diet 8. Administer drugs- anti-inflammatory,  antibiotics, steroids, bulk-forming agents and vitamin/iron supplements

Slide 130: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE APPENDICITIS Inflammation of the vermiform appendix

Slide 132: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE APPENDICITIS  ETIOLOGY: usually fecalith, lymphoid hyperplasia, foreign body and helminthic obstruction

Slide 133: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE APPENDICITIS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  Obstruction of lumen increased pressure decreased blood supply  bacterial proliferation and mucosal inflammation ischemia  necrosis rupture

Slide 134: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS for Appendicitis  1. Abdominal pain: begins in the umbilicus then localizes in the RLQ (Mc Burney’s point)  2. Anorexia  3. Nausea and Vomiting

Slide 135: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS for Appendicitis  4. Fever  5. Rebound tenderness and abdominal rigidity (if perforated)  6. Constipation or diarrhea

Slide 136: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIAGNOSTIC TESTS  1. CBC- reveals increased WBC count  2. Ultrasound  3. Abdominal X-ray

Slide 137: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Preoperative care  NPO  Consent  Monitor for perforation and signs of shock

Slide 138: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Preoperative care  Monitor bowel sounds, fever and hydration status  POSITION of Comfort: RIGHT SIDELYING in a low FOWLER’S  Avoid Laxatives, enemas & HEAT APPLICATION

Slide 139: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE 2. Post-operative care  Monitor VS and signs of surgical complications  Maintain NPO until bowel function returns  If rupture occurred, expect drains and IV antibiotics

Slide 140: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE 2. Post-operative care  POSITION post-op: RIGHT side-lying, semi- fowler’s to decrease tension on incision, and legs flexed to promote drainage  Administer prescribed pain medications

Slide 141: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Hemorrhoids  Abnormal dilation and weakness of the veins of the anal canal  Variously classified as Internal or External, Prolapsed, Thrombosed and Reducible

Slide 142: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Hemorrhoids PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  Increased pressure in the hemorrhoidal tissue due to straining, pregnancy, etc dilatation of veins

Slide 143: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Internal hemorrhoids  These dilated veins lie above the internal anal sphincter  Usually, the condition is PAINLESS

Slide 144: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE External hemorrhoids  These dilated veins lie below the internal anal sphincter  Usually, the condition is PAINFUL

Slide 145: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for Hemorrhoids  1. Internal hemorrhoids- cannot be seen on the peri-anal area  2. External hemorrhoids- can be seen  3. Bright red bleeding with each defecation

Slide 146: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for Hemorrhoids  4. Rectal/ perianal pain  5. Rectal itching  6. Skin tags

Slide 147: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1. Anoscopy 2. Digital rectal examination

Slide 148: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Advise patient to apply cold packs to the anal/rectal area followed by a SITZ bath  2. Apply astringent like witch hazel soaks

Slide 149: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS  3. Encourage HIGH-fiber diet and fluids  4. Administer stool softener as prescribed

Slide 150: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Post-operative care for hemorrhoidectomy  1. Position: Prone or Side-lying  2. Maintain dressing over the surgical site

Slide 151: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Post-operative care for hemorrhoidectomy  3. Monitor for bleeding  4. Administer analgesics and stool softeners  5. Advise the use of SITZ bath 3-4 times a day

Slide 152: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIVERTICULOSIS AND DIVERTICULITIS Diverticulosis  Abnormal out-pouching of the intestinal mucosa occurring in any part of the LI most commonly in the sigmoid Diverticulitis  Inflammation of the diverticulosis

Slide 153: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  Increased intraluminal pressure, LOW volume in the lumen and Decreased muscle strength in the colon wall herniation of the colonic mucosa

Slide 154: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for D/D  1. Left lower Quadrant pain  2. Flatulence  3. Bleeding per rectum  4. nausea and vomiting  5. Fever  6. Palpable, tender rectal mass

Slide 155: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES  1. If no active inflammation,  COLONOSCOPY and Barium Enema 2. CT scan is the procedure of choice!  3. Abdominal X-ray 

Slide 156: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Maintain NPO during acute phase  2. Provide bed rest  3. Administer antibiotics, analgesics like meperidine (morphine is not used) and anti- spasmodics  4. Monitor for potential complications like perforation, hemorrhage and fistula  5. Increase fluid intake

Slide 157: CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS  6. Avoid gas-forming foods or HIGH- roughage foods containing seeds, nuts to avoid trapping  7. introduce soft, high fiber foods ONLY after the inflammation subsides  8. Instruct to avoid activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure

Slide 158: Conditions of the GIT accessory organs The liver

Slide 159: CONDITION OF THE LIVER Liver Cirrhosis  A chronic, progressive disease characterized by a diffuse damage to the hepatic cells  The liver heals with scarring, fibrosis and nodular regeneration

Slide 160: CONDITION OF THE LIVER Liver Cirrhosis ETIOLOGY: Post-infection, Alcohol, Cardiac diseases, Schisostoma, Biliary obstruction

Slide 162: Liver physiology and Pathophysiology Normal Function Abnormality in function 1. Stores glycogen = Hypoglycemia 2. Synthesizes proteins = Hypoproteinemia 3. Synthesizes globulins =Decreased Antibody formation 4. Synthesizes Clotting factors = Bleeding tendencies 5. Secreting bile = Jaundice and pruritus 6. Converts ammonia to urea =Hyperammonemia 7. Stores Vit and minerals =Deficiencies of Vit and min 8. Metabolizes estrogen = Gynecomastia, testes atrophy

Slide 163: CONDITION OF THE LIVER ASSESSMENT FINDINGS  1. Anorexia and weight loss  2. Jaundice  3. Fatigue

Slide 164: CONDITION OF THE LIVER ASSESSMENT FINDINGS  4. Early morning nausea and vomiting  5. RUQ abdominal pain  6. Ascites  7. Signs of Portal hypertension

Slide 166: CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Monitor VS, I and O, Abdominal girth, weight, LOC and Bleeding  2. Promote rest. Elevated the head of the bed to minimize dyspnea

Slide 167: CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 3. Provide Moderate to LOW-protein (1 g/kg/day) and LOW-sodium diet 4. Provide supplemental vitamins (especially K) and minerals

Slide 168: CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 5. Administer prescribed Diuretics= to reduce ascites and edema Lactulose= to reduce NH4 in the bowel Antacids and Neomycin= to kill bacterial flora that cause NH production

Slide 169: CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 6. Avoid hepatotoxic drugs Paracetamol Anti-tubercular drugs

Slide 170: CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS  7. Reduce the risk of injury Side rails reorientation Assistance in ambulation Use of electric razor and soft- bristled toothbrush

Slide 171: CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS  8. Keep equipments ready including Sengstaken- Blakemore tube, IV fluids, Medications to treat hemorrhage

Slide 172: CONDITION OF THE LIVER Nursing Interventions Rationale 1. Low sodium Diet To reduce edema 2. Low protein diet To reduce NH production 3. Benadryl and mild soap To relieve pruritus 4. Pressure onto injection site To prevent bleeding Done to relieve abdominal pressure 5. Assist in paracentesis 6. Administer Medications: Diuretics, Neomycin, Lactulose Albumin, Amino acid Vitamin K (menadione)

Slide 173: Conditions of the Accessory organs The Gallbladder

Slide 174: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Cholecystitis  Inflammation of the gallbladder  Can be acute or chronic

Slide 175: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Cholecystitis  Acute cholecystitis usually is due to gallbladder stones

Slide 176: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Cholecystitis  Chronic cholecystitis is usually due to long standing gall bladder inflammation

Slide 178: Cholelithiasis  Formation of GALLSTONES in the biliary apparatus

Slide 179: Predisposing FACTORS “F”  Female  Fat  Forty  Fertile  Fair

Slide 181: Pathophysiology Supersaturated bile, Biliary stasis Stone formation Blockage of Gallbladder Inflammation, Mucosal Damage and WBC infiltration

Slide 182: Pathophysiology Less bile in the duodenum Impaired fat digestion and absorption Vitamin ADEK mal-absorption, STEATORHEA with increased gas formation Jaundice ACHOLIC stools

Slide 183: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis  1. Indigestion, belching and flatulence  2. Fatty food intolerance, steatorrhea

Slide 184: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis  3. Epigastric pain that radiates to the scapula or localized at the RUQ  4. Mass at the RUQ

Slide 185: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis  5. Murphy’s sign  6. Jaundice  7. dark orange and foamy urine

Slide 186: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES   1. Ultrasonography- can detect the stones  2. Abdominal X-ray  3. Cholecystography

Slide 187: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES   4. WBC count increased  5. Oral cholecystography cannot visualize the gallbladder  6. ERCP: revels inflamed gallbladder with gallstone

Slide 188: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Maintain NPO in the active phase  2. Maintain NGT decompression

Slide 189: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER NURSING INTERVENTIONS  3. Administer prescribed medications to relieve pain. Usually Demerol (MEPERIDINE)  Codeine and Morphine may cause spasm of the Sphincter increased pain. Morphine cause MOREPAIN

Slide 190: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER  4. Instruct patient to AVOID HIGH- fat diet and GAS-forming foods  5. Assist in surgical and non- surgical measures  6. Surgical procedures- Cholecystectomy, Choledochotomy, laparoscopy

Slide 191: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY  Analgesic- Meperidine 2. Chenodeoxycholic acid= to 3. dissolve the gallstones Antacids 4. Anti-emetics 5.

Slide 194: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Post-operative nursing interventions  1. Monitor for surgical complications  2. Post-operative position after recovery from anesthesia- LOW FOWLER’s

Slide 195: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Post-operative nursing interventions  3. Encourage early ambulation  4. Administer medication before coughing and deep breathing exercises  5. Advise client to splint the abdomen to prevent discomfort during coughing

Slide 196: CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Post-operative nursing interventions  6. Administer analgesics, antiemetics, antacids  7. Care of the biliary drainageor T-tube drainage  8. Fat restriction is only limited to 4-6 weeks. Normal diet is resumed

Slide 197: Conditions of the accessory organs The pancreas: Exocrine function

Slide 198: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas Can be acute or chronic

Slide 199: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS Pancreatitis  Etiology and predisposing factors Alcoholism Hypercalcemia Trauma Hyperlipidemia

Slide 200: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS Pancreatitis  Etiology and predisposing factors Biliary tract disease - cholelithiasis Bacterial disease PUD Mumps

Slide 201: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis  Self-digestion of the pancreas by its own digestive enzymes principally TRYPSIN

Slide 202: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis  Spasm, edema or block in the Ampulla of Vater reflux of proteolytic enzymes auto digestion of the pancreas inflammation

Slide 203: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis Autodigestion of pancreatic tissue Hemorrhage, Necrosis and Inflammation KININ ACTIVATION will result to increased permeability Loss of Protein-rich fluid into the peritoneum HYPOVOLEMIA

Slide 204: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS ASSESSMENT findings  1. Abdominal pain- acute onset, occurring after a heavy meal or alcohol intake  2. Abdominal guarding

Slide 205: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS ASSESSMENT findings  3. Bruising on the flanks and umbilicus  4. N/V, jaundice  5. Hypotension and hypovolemia  6. HYPERGLYCEMIA, HYPOCALCEMIA  7. Signs of shock

Slide 206: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS DIAGNOSTIC TESTS  1. Serum amylase and serum lipase  2. Ultrasound  3. WBC  4. Serum calcium  5. CT scan  6. Hemoglobin and hematocrit

Slide 207: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS  1. Assist in pain management. Usually, Demerol is given. Morphine is AVOIDED  2. Assist in correction of Fluid and Blood loss

Slide 208: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS  3. Place patient on NPO to inhibit pancreatic stimulation  4. NGT insertion to decompress distention and remove gastric secretions  5. Maintain on bed rest

Slide 209: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS  7. Position patient in SEMI- FOWLER’s to decrease pressure on the diaphragm  8. Deep breathing and coughing exercises  9. Provide parenteral nutrition

Slide 210: CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS  10. Introduce oral feedings gradually- HIGH carbo, LOW FAT  11. Maintain skin integrity  12. Manage shock and other complications

Slide 211: Quick Summary Peptic Ulcer  Ulceration of mucosa; In the stomach or  duodenum  Outstanding Symptom: PAIN  Nursing Goal: Allow ulcer to heal, prevent complication  Rest: physical and Mental  Eliminate certain foods  Medications: antacid, H2 blockers, Proton Pump inhibitors, antibiotics, mucosal protectants  Surgery: Vagotomy, Billroth 1 and 2

Slide 212: Quick Summary Liver Cirrhosis  Destruction of liver with replacement by scars   Common causes: alcoholism, post-hepatitic  Manifestations related to liver derangements  Jaundice, Ascites, splenomegaly, bleeding, enceph  Nursing goal: Control manifestations and maximize liver function

Slide 213: Quick Summary Liver Cirrhosis  Encourage rest   Avoid hepatotoxic drugs  Diet: HIGH calorie, Restricted protein, LOW Na  Weight client and measure abdominal girth daily  Provide skin care for jaundice and edema  Assess for bleeding: esophageal, rectal, cutaneous  DRUGS: Antacids, Diuretics, Albumin, Neomycin and Lactulose

Slide 214: Quick Summary Cholecystitis  Inflammation of the gallbladder commonly caused  by cholelithiasis (Female, Fat, Forty, Fertile, Fair)  Manifestations: Fat intolerance, RUQ pain, Nausea and vomiting, Jaundice, Murphy’s sign  Nursing Goal: Relieve symptoms and assist in stone removal

Slide 215: Quick Summary Cholecystitis  Administer MEPERIDINE, avoid morphine   Maintain Fluid and electrolyte balance  Maintain a LOW fat diet  Semi-fowler’s position  Assist in surgery  Care of the T-tube

Slide 216: Quick Summary Pancreatitis  Inflammation of the pancreas brought about by the  digestion of the organ by the enzyme it produces  Common causes: Alcoholism, stone  Manifestations: Extreme upper abdominal pain radiating into the back, vomiting, nausea, Abdominal distention, Steatorrhea and weight loss  Laboratory: ELEVATED lipase and amylase

Slide 217: Quick Summary Pancreatitis  Nursing Goal : relieve symptoms, maintain blood  volume and GIT rest  NPO  Provide IVF and Parenteral nutrition  Drugs: MEPERIDINE, never morphine, Antacids, anticholinergics  After Acute phase: LOW fat diet, avoid alcohol, fat and vitamin replacements





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