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Sunday, September 30, 2007

Nclex Preparation: Fluids And Electrolytes Easy Study For Nurses

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Effects of hyponatremia on respiratory system:
shallow, ineffective respiratory movements as a late manifestation r/t skeletal muscle weakness


Effects of hyponatremia on neuromusclar system:
generalized skeletal muscle weakness that is worse in the extremities


Effects of hyponatremia on cerebral function:
headache, personality changes


Effects of hyponatremia on GI system:
a. Increased motility and hyperactive bowel sounds
b. Nausea
c. Abdominal cramping and diarrhea


If the client is taking lithium for hyponatremia, why should you monitor lithium levels?
Hyponatremia can cause diminished lithium excretion, resulting in toxicity.


What are four conditions that cause decreased sodium excretion can result in hypernatremia?
a. Corticosteroids
b. Cushing's syndrome
c. Renal failure
d. Hyperaldosteronism


Effects of hypernatremia on neuromuscular system:
a. Early: spontaneous muscle twitches; irregular muscle contractions
b. Late: skeletal muscle weakness; deep tendon reflexes diminshed or absent


Effects of hypernatremia on central nervous system:
a. altered cerebral function is the most common manifestation of hypernatremia

Effects of hypokalemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Thready, weak, irregular pulse
b. Peripheral pulses weak
c. Orthostatic hypotension
d. EKG changes: ST depression; shallow, flat or inverted T wave; and prominent U wave


Effects of hypokalemia on respiratory system:
a. Shallow, ineffective respirations that result from profound muscle weakness of the skeletal muscles of respiration
b. Diminished breath sounds


Effects of hypokalemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Anxiety, lethary, confusion, coma
b. Skeletal muscle weakness; eventual flaccid paralysis
c. Loss of tactile discrimination
d. Deep tendon hyporeflexia


Effects of hypokalemia on GI system:
a. Decreased motility, hypoactive to absent bowel sounds
b. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal distention
c. Paralytic ileus


The maximun recommended infusion rate is ___ mEq/hr, never to exceed ___ mEq/hr under any circumstances.
5-10; 20


Effects of hyperkalemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Slow, weak, irregular HR
b. Decreased BP
c. EKG changes: tall peaked T waves; widened QRS complexes; prolonged PR intervals; and flat P waves


Effects of hyperkalemia on respiratory system:
profound weakness of the skeletal muscles causes respiratory failure


Effects of hyperkalemia on system:
a. Early: muscle twitches, cramps, paresthesias
b. Late: profound weakness, ascending flaccid paralysis in the arms and legs


Effects of hyperkalemia on GI system:
a. Increased motility, hyperactive bowel sounds
b. Diarrhea


If renal function is impaired, prepare to administer ___, cation exchange resin that promotes GI sodium absorption and potassium excretion.
Kayexalate


Effect of hypocalcemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Decreased HR
b. Hypotension
c. Diminished peripheral pulses
d. EKG changes: prolonged ST interval; prolonged QT intervals


Effect of hypocalcemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Irritable skeletal muscles: twitches, cramps, tetany, seizures
b. Parasthesias followed by numbness that may affect the lips, nose, and ears in addition to the limbs
c. Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes


Effect of hypocalcemia on GI system:
a. Increased gastric motility; hyperactive bowel sounds


Effect of hypercalcemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Increased HR in early phase; bradycardia that can lead to cardiac arrest in late phases
b. Increased BP
c. Bounding, full peripheral pulses
d. EKG changes: shortened ST segment; widened T wave


Effect of hypercalcemia on respiratory system:
Ineffective respiratory movement as a result of profound skeletal muscle weakness

Effect of hypercalcemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Profound muscle weakness
b. Diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes
c. Disorientation, lethary, coma

Effect of hypercalcemia on renal system:
a. Increased urinary output leading to dehydration
b. Anorexia, nausea, abdominal distention, constipation


Effect of hypomagnesemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Twitches; paresthesias
b. Positive Trousseau's and Chvostek's signs


hypo-___ frequently accompanies hypomagnesemia.
calcemia


Effects of hypermagnesemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Diminished deep tendon reflexes
b. Skeletal muscle weakness


Effects of hypermagnesemia on central nervous system:
drowsiness and lethargy that progresses to coma


A decrease in the serum phosphorus level is accompanied by an increase in the serum ___ level.
calcium


Effects of hypophospatemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Weakness
b. Decreased deep tendon reflexes
c. Decreased bone density that can cause fractures and alterations in bone shape

An increase in the serum phosphorus level is accompanied by a decrease in the serum ___ level.
calcium


The problems that occur in hyperphosphatemia center on the hypo-___ that results when serum phosphorus levels increase.
calcemia





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