Cancer Slidshow Transcript
Slide 1: CANCER Dr Raymond Arhin 2007
Slide 2: • Breast cancer in a mastectomy specimen (top). The cancerous tumour (pale yellow) resembles the figure of a crab, giving the disease its name.
Slide 3: What is CANCER? • Cancer is a disease characterized by cells that • grow and divide without respect to normal limits, • invade and destroy adjacent tissues, • and may spread to distant sites by metastasis
Slide 4: Epidemiology • Cancer affects 1 in 3 of us in our lifetime. • Over 70% of cancers happen to people who are over the age of 60 • Cancer can affect people of all ages • Cancer causes about 13% of all death
Slide 5: Male Female Most common Cause of death Most common Cause of death prostate cancer (33%) lung cancer (31%) breast cancer (32%) lung cancer (27%) prostate cancer (10%) prostate cancer Lung Cancer(15%) Breast Cancer (15%) (10%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Colorectal Colorectal Colorectal cancer(10%) cancer(11%) cancer(10%) Bladder cancer(5%) Pancreatic Endometrial Ovarian cance(6%) cancer(7%) cancer(6%) Melanoma(4%) Leukaemia(5%) Lymphoma(4%) Pancreatic ca (6%)
Slide 6: SYMPTOMS- Local symptoms: • unusual lumps or swelling (tumor), • hemorrhage (bleeding), • pain and/or ulceration. • Compression of surrounding tissues may cause symptoms such as jaundice.
Slide 7: Symptoms of metastasis (spreading): • Enlarged lymph nodes, • Cough, especially blood in cough, • enlarged liver, • bone pain, fracture of affected bones. • Although advanced cancer may cause pain, it is often not the first symptom.
Slide 8: Systemic symptoms: • weight loss, • poor appetite and severe weight loss, • excessive sweating especially at night, • anemia
Slide 9: Diagnosis • Cancers are recognized either because- • signs or symptoms appear, • screening. • Biopsy • A cancer may be suspected for a variety of reasons, but the definitive diagnosis of most malignancies must be confirmed by histological examination of the cancerous cells by a pathologist.
Slide 10: Investigation . • These commonly include blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and a camera test(endoscopy). • Chest x-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung.
Slide 11: Treatment Cancer can be treated by • surgery, • chemotherapy, • radiation therapy, • immunotherapy, • other methods.
Slide 12: Prognosis • Cancer has a reputation for being a deadly disease. • With modern treatment the peognosis is improving and actually much better than heart attack or stroke in some cases.
Slide 13: Causes • Chemical carcinogens • Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, or carcinogens. • Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer. • Prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with mesothelioma. • Alcohol is associated with stomach, oesophageal, liver,mouth cancer.
Slide 14: • Radiation • Infectious diseases • Hormonal imbalances • Immune system imbalances • Heriditary
Slide 15: Prevention • Modifiable (\"lifestyle\") risk factors • Alcohol consumption (associated with increased risk of oral, esophageal, breast, and other cancers), • smoking • physical inactivity (associated with increased risk of colon, breast, and possibly other cancers), • overweight (associated with colon, breast, endometrial, and possibly other cancers).
Slide 16: Diet • Obesity increases the risk of developing cancer. • Diet- Particular dietary practices often explain differences in cancer incidence in different countries (e.g. gastric cancer is more common in Japan, while colon cancer is more common in the United States). • Reduced red meat consumption is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer. • Studies have linked consumption of grilled meat to an increased risk of stomach cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer, a phenomenon which could be due to the presence of carcinogens such as benzopyrene in foods cooked at high temperatures. • Consumption of a plant-based diet and lifestyle changes resulted in a reduction in cancer • Vitamins
Slide 17: screening • Breast cancer screening can be done by breast self-examination, ot mammograms Colorectal cancer -fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy, • Cervical cytology testing (using the Pap smear) leads to the identification and excision of precancerous lesions. Testicular self- examination is recommended for men beginning at the age of 15 years to detect testicular cancer. • Prostate cancer -digital rectal exam along with prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood testing.
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