Situation 1: An understanding of the usefulness of scientific finding is more and more essential for quality nursing practice.
1. You decided to do a review of literature. The most important reason for doing so
a. improve your library reading skills
b. get ideas on interpretation of findings
c. formulate a conceptual framework for the study
d. decide on a sampling method
2. The sampling method where each member of the study population has an equal chance to be selected as a subject is called :
a. purposive sampling
b. selective sampling
c. random sampling
d. convenient sampling
3. The study population where you will select your study subjects is referred to as the:
a. research subjects
b. study group
4. Which part of the study relates to validity and reliability criteria?
Situation 2: Mr. Tinio, a cardiovascular patient has been hospitalized for 4 months and his doctor has ordered for discharge. -
5. Mr. Tinio appears anxious about numerous aspects of his home care. The best response you would give is:
a. explore with him his fears and allow him to verbalize feelings
b. advice him to take all his medication regularly
c. explain why he has to have certain activity limitation
d. let him express his feelings to reduce his anxiety
6. An immediate need for Mr. Tinio is:
a. reduce anxiety
b. more independent in outlook
c. security and comfort
d. conserve energy
7. Cardiac rehabilitation programs in the acute stage aids the person in:
a. reaching an activity level required for self-care
b. preventing further complications
c. plan his activity of living
d. acceptance of his condition
8. Cardiac rehabilitation goals in long-term, restore individual to optimum health and:
a. prevent health complaints
b. slow down progress of disease
c. another myocardiac infarction attack
d. avoid exposure to infection
9. The greatest effect on his home recovery will be his:
a. expectation to go back to work
b. dietary needs to be well
c. family’s emotional support
d. understanding of the cause d: his illness
Situation 3: A survey of first year students in your school showed that about 40% do not eat breakfast before coming to school. •
10. The most appropriate research design for the study is:
c. ex post facto
11. If you decide to study the relationship of eating breakfast and performance in class, which would be the independent variable?
a. Student's characteristic
b. Meal patterns
c. Performance in class
d. Eating breakfast
12. The most appropriate statement of your hypothesis is:
a. There is a positive correlation between eating habits class performance
b. There is a relationship between eating breakfast and performance in class
c. Performance in class is more likely to be affected when eating breakfast
d. Performance in class is associated with eating breakfast
Situation 4: Mrs. Alcantara, a 56 years old cardiovascular patient has edema of the lower limits. You suspect some electrolyte imbalance.
13. These are signs of fluid volume excess Except:
a. weight gain
c. neck vein distention
14. Which is the main excretory organ for regulation of fluid electrolyte balance?
b. gastro intestinal tract
15-Which is the best way to assess degree of edema?
a. skin indentation when pressed my finger
b. comparing present with previous weight
c. pinching a fold of skin
d. measuring intake and output
Situation 5: Mrs. B. Santos, 5 years married; postponed pregnancy to save money. She visits her physician because complaints of increasing pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia from a series of diagnostic evaluations the physician ruled out in endometriosis.
16. Endometriosis is best described as:
a. a defect in the endometrial lining
b. a major cause of primary dysmenorrhea
c. a pathological condition due to abnormal proliferation of uterine lining
d. the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus
17. The criteria used to confirm a diagnosis of endometriosis is:
a. laparoscopy and biopsy results
b. laboratory findings
c. result of endometrial biopsy ,
d. family's health
18. The physician prescribes danazol (Danocrine, for Mrs. B. Santos). The nurse anticipates the needed health teaching when she tells her that while taking this drug, she can expect to experience all of the following except:
a. diminished menstrual flew
b. edema and increase in weight
c. menses stops
19. In order to get the most accurate reading the nurse Informs Mrs. B. Santos to take her BBT:
a. within half and hour after rising
b. immediately before rising
c. before going to bed in the evening
d. at the same time every day immediately after awakening and before rising
Situation 6: Justice Yu is scheduled for cholecystectomy in the morning.
20. From the recovery room he was brought back to the ward with nasogastric tube, the rationale for his having NGT is to:
a. prevent abdominal distention
b. prevent nausea and vomiting
c. promote hydration .
d. promote drainage
21. Post operative order is NPO. You will tell him that feeding begin as soon as:
a. abdominal spasm
b. peristalsis returns
c. forty-eight hours is over
d. absence of bowel sound is appreciated
22. Which of these is not likely to happen as his post operative complication:
b. post operative jaundice
c. bile leakage
d. ventricular hypertrophy
23. The rationale of your supervising properly how he does the coughing exercise is to prevent him from developing:
Situation 7: Mrs. Cayetano is brought to the emergency room complaining of chest pain, perspiring profusely and breathing rapidly. .
24. Upon admission, Mrs. Cayetano is screaming, saying " I'm dying. I can't breathe." The nurse therapeutically says;
a. "Why are you saying that?"
b. "You are not dying. Let me help you."
c. "You are very upset. Let me help you."
d. "We are here to help you."
25. Mrs. Cayetano is experiencing what level of anxiety:
26. A minor tranquilizer to relieve Mrs. Cayetano's anxiety is ordered because this medication:
a. causes fewer undesirable side effects
b. does not impair intellectual activity
c. induces sleep easily
d. is excreted from the body more rapidly
27 An example of minor tranquilizer is:
a. Amitryptyline (Elavil)
b. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
c. Diazepam (Valium)
d. Imipramine Hcl (Trofranil)
28. Upon discharge to evaluate Mrs. Cayetano's progress, this important factor should be considered:
a. recognizes the need of describing situations proceeding her feeling of anxiety
b. can change her method of handling anxiety
c. understand the rationale for taking the prescribed medication
d. knows the reason for tier feelings of anxiety
Situation 8: Mercedes is admitted with acute depression. Assessment data revealed that she was terminated from her job as a secretary two (2) months ago.
29. In the initial nurse-client interaction. Mercedes says to the nurse "! am a worthless person I should be dead," The nurse appropriately responds by sayings
a. "Don’t says that, you are not a worthless person."
b. "We are trying to help you with your feelings."
c. "What make you feet worthless?" It: must be awful to feel that way"
d. "What you are feeling is part of your illness." It will lessen as you get better."
30. The therapeutic environment for a depressed client is one which
a. allows her to verbalize her feelings
b. pays particular attention to her physical needs
c. provide opportunity for interacting with others
d. allows freedom to select her own daily activities
31. The appropriate nursing diagnosis is:
a. sensory-perceptual a!teration
b. impaired adjustment
c altered thought process
d. self esteem disturbance
32. MAO inhibitor anti depressant drug was ordered. This is:
a. Diazapam (Vallium)
b. Imipramine HCL (Trofanil)
c: Phenelzine sulfate (Nardil)
d. Amitryptyline (Elavil)
33 Mercedes is being prepared for discharge. The nurse instructs tier husband to observe signs of depression. The following behaviors indicate recurrence of depression. Except:
c. psychomotor retardation
d. feeling of hopelessness
Situation 9: during the past two years, Aling Maring , age 70, manifested progressive memory impairment and confusion.
34. Initial nursing diagnosis would be:
a. impaired adjustment
b. altered thought process
c. disturbance in self esteem
d. impaired social interaction
35.Aling Maring makes up stories about events she can not recall because it:
a. reduces feeling of isolation
b. maintains her self esteem
c. reduces her feelings of frustration
d. increases her feeling of security
36. She is observed to be repeating the same word oyer and over again. This symptom is known as:
Situation 10: A 29 year old assistant manager of a prestigious bank, Anna, has been suffering from peptic ulcer for one year.
37. In caring of patients with psychophysiology disorders, the nurse knows that:
a. Psycho physiologic disorders are not usually a medical emergency
b. The relief of physical symptoms will help resolve the psychological problems
c. There are no pathological findings that would cause the symptoms
d. Psychological stress can precipitate physical disorders
38. Because of limited coping skills in dealing with anxiety, the nurse identifies this nursing diagnosis:
a. impaired adjustment
b. social isolation
c. impaired social interaction
d. ineffective individual coping
39. On admission, the nurse priorities one of the following nursing intervention:
a. Help Anna socialize with other patients
b. Help Anna perform activities of daily living
c. Alleviate physical symptoms
d. Help Anna identify situations which increase anxiety
40. Primary gain In Illness refers to:
a. Feeling of indifference to the distressing symptom
b. Use of symptom to decrease anxiety
c. Interpersonal benefits the patient derives from illness
d. Increased ability to cope with anxiety in the future
Situation 11: A teacher, Flora, 52 years old, with severe depression was admitted to the hospital. Her past history regaled she had suicidal ideation and has expressed feelings of helplessness.
41. One of the following statements is true with regard to the care of a depressed patient like Flora:
a. ail depressed clients are potentially suicidal
b. most suicidal persons give no warning
c only rnentally ill persons commit suicide
d. the chance of suicide decreases as depression lessen
42. Patients with severe depression, uses this defense mechanism:
43. During the initial stage of hospitalization, the most appropriate nursing intervention in planning activities for Flora is:
a. allow her to cheese what she wants to do each day
b. provide daily schedule of activities for her to follow
c. observe for signs which will indicate her willingness to participate in any activity
d. schedule one's activity per day to give her time to rest
44. One morning Flora says to the nurse. "Go away and leave me alone. All I want is rest." The nurse response therapeutically when she replies:
a. "Since you say you are tired, I'll check you later."
b. "I am going to stay with you for a while."
c. "When would you like me to return."
d. "Why do you want me to leave."
45. Flora is being prepared for discharge. However, she says "I am afraid to go home, no one wants to live with me." One of the following would be the appropriate nursing intervention;
a. involve the family in planning for discharge of Flora
b. accept her appraisal of the situation and explore their alternatives
c. discourage her from thinking that no one wants to live with her
d. encourage her to discuss discharge plans her family
Situation 12: Millie R., ages 74, was recently admitted to a nursing home because of confusion, disorientation, and negativistic behavior. Her family states that Millie is in good health.
46. Millie asks you," Where am I?" The best response of the nurse to make is
a. "Don't worry, Millie. You're safe here."
b. "Where do you think you are?"
c. What did your family tell you?"
d. "You're at the community nursing home."
47. Which at the following would be an appropriate strategy in reorienting a confused client to where her room is?
a. Race pictures of her family on the bedside stand
b. Put her name in large letters on her forehead
c. Remind the client where her room is
d. Let the ether residents knew where the client's roan is
48. Which activity would you engage Millie in at the nursing home?
a. reminiscence group
c. discussion group
d. exercise class
49. Millie has had difficulty sleeping since admission. Which of the following would be the best intervention?
a. Provide her with a glass of warm milk
b. Ask the physician for a mid sedative
c. Do net allow Millie to take naps during the day
d. Ask her family what they prefer
50.Millie R. has self-care deficit. She has difficulty herself. The best action for the nurse to take is to
a. have the client to wear hospital gowns
b. explain to the client why he should dress herself
c. give the client step-by-step instructions for dressing herself
d. allow enough time for the client to dress herself.
Situation 13: Ronald, 23 years old, was voluntarily admitted to the inpatient unit with a
diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia.
51. AS the nurse approaches Ronald he says, "If you come any closer, I die." This is an example of:
d. idea of reference
52. The best response for the nurse to make to this behavior is:
a. How can I hurt you?
b. I'm the nurse
c. Tell me more about this
d. That's a silly thing to say
53. Ronald is pacing the halls and is agitated. The nurse hears him saying, "I have to get away from those doctors! They are trying to commit me to the state hospital". The nurse's continued assessment should include
a. clarifying information with the doctor
b. observing Ronald for rising anxiety
c. renewing history of involuntarily commitment
d. checking dosage of prescribed medication
Situation 14: Mr. K, 24 years old, was admitted on a voluntary basis to psychiatric services, He had agreed to inpatient care as an alternative to a 30 day jail sentence fro reckless driving, driving under the influence of alcohol and over speeding. He has been under psychiatric care for three years, has a long history of petty crimes, and was able with help of his therapist, to convince the judge that a higher level of psychiatric care would be in everyone's best interest,
54. When a scheduled group therapy session in announcement, he refuses to go and the nurse has to resort inn pleading with him to attend. He uses ether client to his own needs and often pioneers causes that are disruptive to the milieu. The diagnostic title that best describes Mr. Ks behavior is
a. Antisocial personality disorder
b. Borderline personality disorder
c. Passive-aggressive personality disorder
d. Passive-dependent personality disorder
55. In planning care for Mr. K it is important for the nurse to recognize that all of the following are likely to occur except
a. staff and client agree when setting treatment goals
b. staff and client are consonant struggle for control of the milieu
c. staff and client feel threatened by one another
d. staff and client use the same defense mechanism when interacting
56. Key intervention for a client with an antisocial personality disorder include all of the following except:
a. assisting him to identity and clarify his feelings
b. changing staff assigned to Mr. K at his request
c. making expectations about his behavior dear as well as consequences for same.
d Setting firm limit with clear consequences
57. At the time of discharge the nurse understands that Mr. K is most likely to:
a. be committed to another facility for a longer length of stay
b. be committed to a virtuous and socially acceptable life-style
c. discontinue treatment with the outpatient therapist
d. revert to pre hospitalization behaviors
Situation 15: Tammy, 18 months old, has been admitted for second degree burns surroundings the genital area. Her mother told the nurse that Tammy grabbed the hot coffee cup and spilled it on herself.
58. The nurse is required by law to
a. testify in court on the injuries.
b. Reports suspected child abuse
c. Have the mother arrested
d. Refer the mother to counseling
59. Tammy’s mother is 17 years old, in which of the areas would the nurse provide health teaching?
a. Normal growth and development
b. Bonding techniques
c. How to childproof the apartment
d. Parenting skills
Situation 16:.Annie, a 4th year BSN student will have their duty in psychiatric hospital, She is reviewing her notes about: Nurses -Client relationship/Therapeutic Communication
60. Trust may develop in the nurse -client relationship when the nurse
a. avoid limit setting
b. encourage the client to use "testing" behaviors
c. tell the clients how he should behave
d. Uses consistency in approaching the client.
61. A client has just begun, to discuss important feelings when the time of the interview is up. The next day, when the nurse meets with the client the agreed-upon time, the initial intervention would be to say
a. "Good morning; how are you today?"
b. "Yesterday you were talking about some very important feelings. Let's continue."
c. "What would you like to talk about today?"
d. Nothing and wait for the client to introduce the topic.
62. A new staff is on orientation tour with the head nurse. A client approaches her and says, "I don't belong here. Please try to get me out." The staff nurse's response would be.
a. “What would you do if you were out of the hospital?"
b. "I am a new staff member, and I'm on a tour. I'll come back and talk with you."
c. "1 think you should talk with the head nurse about that."
d. "I can't do anything about that."
63. The nurse is in the day room with the group of the client who has been quietly watching TV suddenly jumps up screaming and runs out of the room. The nurse's priority intervention would be to
a. Turn off the TV and ask the group what they think about the client's behavior
b. Follow after the client to see what has happened.
c. ignore the incident because these outbreak are frequent,
d. Send another client out of the room to check on tile agitated client.
64. A nurse observes the client sitting alone in her room crying. As the nurse approaches her, the client states, "I'm feeling sad- S don't want to talk now." The nurse's best response would be
a. "lt will help you feel better if you talk about it."
b. "I’ll come back when you feel like talking."
c. "Ill stay with you a few minutes."
d. "Sometimes it helps to talk." •
Situation 16: Defense mechanisms are used by individuals, in order to cope with anxiety and stress in life. The following questions refer to anxiety and stress disorders/defense mechanisms.
65. A student failed her psychology final exam and spent the entire evening berating the teacher and the course. This behavior would be an example of which defense mechanisms?
d. Acting out
66. The most effective nursing intervention for a severely anxious client who is pacing vigorously would be to
a. instruct her to sit down and quit pacing
b. place her In bed to reduce stimuli and allow rest
c. allow tier to walk unit she becomes physically tired
d. give her PRN medication and walk with her at a gradual slewing pace
67. A client is experiencing high degree or anxiety. It is important to recognize if additional help is required because
a. if the client is out of control, another person will help to decrease his anxiety level.
b. Being alone with an anxious client is dangerous.
c. It will take another person to direct the client into activities to relieve anxiety.
d. Hospital protocol for handing anxious clients requires at least two people.
68. A client with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder constantly does repetitive cleaning. The nurse knows that this behavior is probably most basically an attempt to:
a. decrease anxiety to tolerate level
b. focus attention on non threatening task
c. control others
d. decrease, the time available for interaction with people.
69. A client is suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder following a rape by an unknown assailant. One of the primary goals of nursing care for this client would be to;
a. Establish safe, supportive environment
b. Control aggressive behavior
c. Deal with the client's anxiety
d. Discuss client's nightmare and reactions.
70. A client's deafness has been diagnosed as convention disorder. Nursing intervention should be guided by which one of the following?
a. The client will probably express much anxiety about her deafness and require much reassurance.
b. The client will have little or no awareness of the psychogenic cause of her deafness.
c. Tile client's need for the symptom should be respected; thus, secondary gains should be allowed.
d. The defense mechanisms of suppression and rationalization are involved in creating symptom.
71. A female client has just received the diagnosis of hypochondriasis. This client continually focuses on gastrointestinal problems and constantly rings for a nurse to meet her every demand. The best nursing approach is to
a. ignore the demands because the nurse knows it is net necessary to respond.
b. Assign various staff members to work with the client so no staff member will become negative.
c. Anticipate the client's demands and spend them with her even though she does not demand it.
d. Provide for the client's basic needs, but do not respond her every demand, which reinforces secondary gains.
72. Person with personality disorders are known to be manipulators. Which principles is it important for the nurse to Know in planning the care of a person, with this diagnosis?
a. The nurse should allow manipulation so as to not raise the client's anxiety
b. The nurse should appeal to the client's sense of loyalty in adhering to the rules of the community.
c. When the client's manipulations are not successful, anxiety will increase.
d. The establishment of a nurse-client relationship will decrease the client's manipulations.
73. A mate client on the psychiatric unit becomes upset and breaks a chair when a visitor does not show up. The first nursing intervention should be to"
a. Say with the client during the stressful time.
b. Ask direct questions about the client's behavior
c. Set limits and restrict client's behavior
d. Ran with the client on hew he can better handle frustration.
74. The nurse has been interviewing the client who ha snot been able to discuss any feelings. This day, 5 minutes before the time is over, the client begins to talk about important feelings. The intervention is to
a. Go over the agreed-upon time, as the client is finally able to discuss important feelings.
b. Tell client that is time to end the session now, but another nurse will discuss his feelings with him.
c. Set an extra meeting time a little later to discuss these feelings.
d. Bid just as agreed, but tell the client these are very important feelings and he can continue tomorrow.
Situation 17: A 60-year old client complains of headaches, restlessness and insomnia. During an interview, the nurse Seams that the symptoms began 3 months ago after the client was forced into early retirement.
75. The nurse recognizes that the client is probably experiencing:
a. A social crisis
b. A situational crisis
c. An economic crisis
d. A development crisis
76. According to crisis theory, the minimal long term goal in crisis intervention is:
a. Relief of acute symptoms
b. Relief of panic-level anxiety .
c. Restoration of the origins functioning level
d. Reorganization and reordering of the personality
77. The most critical factor for tine nurse to determine during crisis intervention is the client's:
a. developmental history
b. available situational supports
c. underlying unconscious conflict
d. willingness to restructure the personality
78. When Interviewing in a crisis situation, the initial concern of the nurse is:
a. What was the precipitating factor?
b. How is the individual affecting others?
c. How will the client deal with successive crisis
d. Whether the individual can go back to daily activities
Situation 17: Ms. Zepetee is a client with a history of abuse of multiple drugs.
79. When planning care for her. The nurse should be aware that the most serious life-threatening symptoms during withdrawal usually result from:
80. With a tentative diagnosis of opiate addiction, the nurse should assess this recently hospitalize client for signs of opiate withdrawal. These signs would include:
a. lacrimation vomiting, drowsiness
b. nausea, dilated pupils, constipation
c. muscle aches, papillary constriction, yawning
d. rhino rhea, convulsions, abnormal temperature
81. The nurse aware that opiates are most commonly used because the individual.
a. desire to become independent
b. wants to fit In with the peer group
c. attempts to blur reality and reduce stress
d. enjoys the social interrelationship that occur
82. Ms. Zepetee is treated for multiple stab wounds to the abdomen. After surgical repair the nurse notes that the client's pain does not seem to be relieved by the prescribed IM mepericline hydrochloride. The nurse recognizes that the failure to achieve pain relief from indicates that she is probably experiencing the phenomenon of:
c. physical addiction
83. After a visit from several friends the nurse finds a client with a known history of opiate addiction in a deep sleep and unresponsive to attempts at arousal The nurse assesses the client's vital signs and would evaluate that an overdose of opiates had occurred if the findings showed a:
a. blood pressure of 70/40 mm Hg, pulse of 120- and respirations of 10
b. blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg, a pulse of 84, and respirations of 20
c. blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg, a pulse of 76, and respirations of 28.
d. blood pressure of 180/100 mm Mg, a pulse of 72, and respirations of 18
84. At a staff meeting the question of a staff nurse returning to work after a dug rehabilitation program Is discussed. The nursing supervisor helps the staff to decide that the most therapeutic way to handle the nurse's return would be to:
a. Offer the nurse support In a. direct, straightforward manner
b. Avoid mentioning the problem unless the nurse brings up the topic
c. Assigns another staff member to keep the nurse under dose observation
d. Make certain the nurse is assigned to administer only non-narcotic medications.
85. Addicted clients commonly expect prejudice and hostility from psychiatric personnel. The nurse can best overcome their expectation by using:
a. acceptance and consistency In the approach
b. reassurance that nonjudgmental attitudes exists
c. self-disclosure to promote a therapeutic relationship
d. confrontation of these judgmental attitudes is'' the client
86. A client with a long history to alcohol abuse is placed on a diet in vitamin B1 (Thiamine). "The nurse would know that the diet is understood when the client states" I will select something for each meal from among:
a. Fish, aged cheese, and breads
b. Poultry, milk products, and eggs
c. Lean pork, organ meat, and nuts
d. "Leafy and green vegetables and citrus fruits." '
87. The nurse is aware that tile reason some alcoholics are unable to stop drinking even though they begin to attend AA meetings is that they:
a enjoy the feeling caused by drinking alcohol
b. physiologically require the substance in their body
c. are trying to drastically stop after a long-standing habit
d. often have a character direct that defeats their will power
Situation 18: ethical and legal responsibilities are part of your nursing practices
88. Which of the following statements is true?
a. ethics prescribed what are right and wrong conduct
b. ethics and morals are synonymous
c. morals as human conduct is also a legal rights
d. an unethical act is immoral
89. The Code for Nurse best describes:
a. rules that protect public interest and welfare
b. principles of conduct becoming a nurse
c. right ways of giving nursing care
d. society's norm in the practice of nursing
90. When you start the practice of professional nursing you assume "ipso facto" obligations to uphold the noble traditions of the professions. You are expected to:
a. earn a living
b. safeguard public health
c. abide by the law
d. fulfill your civic duties
91. The scope of nursing practice based on RA 7164 the following responsibilities. EXCEPT:
a. interpreting results of sensitivity test
b. initiating "code blue"
c. suturing laceration
d. care of women during pregnancy, labor and delivery
92. To develop independence of families in health, which of the following is the best approach?
a. family education for life
b. family empowerment
e. family health work
d. family health organization
Situation 19: You often do not finish your nursing work on the time for shift endorsement
93. This is an indicator of effective use of your time:
a. Keeping a time schedule
b. using a log book
c. checking Kardex cards
d. reading ward
94. What evidence will indicate your effective use of time?
a. doctor's bill have been issued
b. charting completed on time
c. all serious patients have been cared
d. patient's bills forwarded to billing office
95. You knew that in practice effective use of time is good management. Which of the following measures would be most helpful in keeping tract of work time?
a. keep a log for the day
b. plan your work activities
c. do a time analysis
d. request health in your work
96. Which of the following would you first do?
a. organize activities by priority
b. ask an attendant to help you
c. attend first to patients without watchers
d. none of the above
97. Research contributes to the acknowledge-based on professional nursing. Which of the following, statement in the improvement is TRUE?
a. research seeks the unknown
b. research resolve a problem
c. research studies the world of reality
d. research relies on observable evidence
98. When you participate in nursing research your main activity is to:
a. develop problem solving skills
b. explain a nursing phenomenon
c. solve a nursing problem
d. understand man as human being
99. This type of research that attempts to solve practical nursing problems.
a. clinical-problem research
b. basic research
c. applied research
d. quasi-experimental research
100. The most import art value of research to practicing nurse is:
a. it improve clinical competence
b. it develops analytical skills
c. it contribute to new knowledge
d. it demonstrate professionalism
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